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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the study sample (N = 10,935)

From: Financial transfers from adult children and depressive symptoms among mid-aged and elderly residents in China - evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

Variables Mean (%) SD
Dependent variable Depressive symptoms (cesd-10a score) (0–30) 7.3 6
Independent variable Inter-generational financial transfers (log of transfers) 7.5 1.3
Other transfers Whether take care of grandchildren   
  No (ref.) 58.1%  
  Yes 41.9%  
  Contact with children   
  Seldom(ref.) 37.4%  
  Sometimes 34.5%  
  Often 28.1%  
  Living with any child   
  No(ref.) 56.7%  
  Yes 43.3%  
Demographic factors: Age group   
  45–56(ref.) 23.7%  
  56–62 24.9%  
  62–69 25.4%  
  69- 26.0%  
  Gender   
  Male (ref.) 46.8%  
  Female 53.2%  
  Marital status   
  Other (ref.) 14.0%  
  Living with spouse 86.0%  
Socioeconomic factors: Education level (1–10)b 3.1 1.9
  Income level 8.6 1
  Amenities/associations (0–14)c 3.1 3.4
  Areas of china   
  Northwest (ref.) 6.1%  
  Southwest 18.9%  
  Northeast 7.1%  
  East 23.9%  
  South 8.4%  
  Central 22.4%  
  North 13.2%  
  Rural-urban   
  Rural (ref.) 66.3%  
  Urban 33.7%  
Health and social factors: Any difficulty with ADLd   
No (ref.) 92.8%  
  Yes 7.2%  
  Chronic disease (0–10)e 0.4 0.8
  Whether participated in any social activities   
  No (ref.) 39.6%  
  Yes 60.4%  
  Whether still on work   
  No (ref.) 35.0%  
  Yes 65.0%  
  1. SD = standard deviation
  2. a CEDS-10: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (Range 0–30, Mean = 7.3, SD = 6.0)
  3. b Education level: including 10 levels,1 = No formal education (illiterate);2 = Did not finish primary school but capable of reading and/or writing;3 = home school;4 = Elementary school;5 = Middle school;6 = High school;7 = Vocational school;8 = Two-/Three-Year College/Associate degree;9 = Four-Year College/Bachelor degree;10 = Master degree (Range1–10, mean = 3.1, SD = 1.9)
  4. c Amenities/associations (0–14): Summed number of amenities/associations, was used to assess community building level, which was significantly associated with the mental health. (Rang 0–14, Mean = 3.1,SD = 3.4)
  5. d ADL: activities of daily living (dressing, walking, bathing, eating, getting in/out of bed, toileting, and experiencing incontinence)
  6. e Chronic disease: summed number of diagnosed chronic disease (hypertension, Dyslipidemia, diabetes or high blood sugar, Cancer or malignant tumor, Chronic lung diseases, Liver disease, Heart attack, Stroke, Kidney disease, Stomach or other digestive disease, Stomach or other digestive disease, Stomach or other digestive disease, Arthritis or rheumatism, Asthma) (range0–14, Mean = 0.4, SD = 0.8)