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Table 2 Primary and secondary measures of impact at the population-level in the South African and Kenyan evaluation sites, to be estimated by comparing calendar time periods that represent pre-DREAMS, during early roll-out of DREAMS, and after DREAMS roll-out

From: Evaluating the impact of the DREAMS partnership to reduce HIV incidence among adolescent girls and young women in four settings: a study protocol

  Adolescent girls and young women Male sexual partners
15–19 years 20–24 years (15–34 years)
Primary Outcome HIV incidencea HIV incidencea
Secondary Outcomes
Biological protection Knows HIV statusb
HIV/STI prevalence STI prevalence & Incidence Uptake of VMMC
Use of ART
Community HIV viral loadd
Behavioral protection Ever had sex Number of sexual partners (in last year / lifetime)
Age at first sex
Number of sexual partners (in last year / lifetime)
Age-disparity with sexual partners
Ever been pregnant Unmet need for contraceptionc Concurrency of sexual partners
Age at first / subsequent pregnancies
Use of condomse
Any condomless sex
Transactional sex
Social protection In or completed school In employment or completed vocational / microfinance training Gender norms: support gender equity
Age at first marriage Experience of violence (exposure to / victimization / perpetration)
Experience of violence
  1. anot collected in Nairobi
  2. bknow they are HIV+ or have tested HIV negative in the past 12 months
  3. c do not want a child in next 2 years or ever but not using a method to prevent pregnancy
  4. d uMkhanyakude only
  5. e Used condom at last sex (in past 12 months); Any condomless sex in last 1 month / last 12 months and in the last 3 months