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Table 1 descriptive characteristic of the participants by sex

From: The relationship between objectively-measured attributes of the built environment and selected cardiovascular risk factors in a South African urban setting

Variables Male Female P-value All
N (%) 77 (22.6) 264 (77.4)   341
Age (Ma ± SD) 54.4 ± 11.9 56.6 ± 10.2 0.101 56.1 ± 10.6
Socio-demographic (N (%))
 Marital status    0.093  
  Never 29 (37.7) 114 (45.2)   143 (41.9)
  Current 28 (36.4) 56 (21.2)   84 (24.6)
  Co-habiting 5 (6.5) 20 (7.6)   25 (7.3)
  Single 3 (3.9) 11 (4.2)   14 (4.1)
  Widowed/divorced/separated 12 (15.6) 63 (23.9)   75 (22.0)
 Education Level    0.581  
  Primary 19 (24.7) 67 (25.4)   86 (25.2)
  Secondary 46 (59.7) 165 (62.5)   211 (61.9)
  Vocation 7 (9.1) 24 (9.1)   31 (9.1)
  College/University 5 (6.5) 8 (3.0)   13 (3.8)
 Employment Status    0.332  
  Full time 10 (13.0) 21 (8.0)   31 (9.1)
  Part time 7 (9.1) 14 (5.3)   21 (6.2)
  Self employed 3 (3.9) 12 (4.5)   15 (4.4)
  Unemployed 41 (53.2) 170 (64.4)   211 (61.9)
  Retired 16 (20.8) 47 (17.8)   63 (18.5)
 Salary levels b    0.704  
   ≤ ZAR 2000 3 (3.9) 17 (6.4)   20 (5.9)
  ZAR 2000–5000 72 (93.5) 240 (90.9)   312 (91.5)
   ≥ ZAR 5000 2 (2.6) 7 (2.7)   9 (2.6)
 Smoking    0.005  
  Never 29 (37.7) 155 (58.7)   184 (54.0)
  Current 30 (39.0) 66 (25.0)   96 (28.2)
  Former 18 (23.4) 43 (16.3)   61 (17.9)
 Alcohol    0.004  
  Never 22 (28.6) 122 (46.2)   144 (42.2)
  Current 39 (50.6) 81 (30.7)   120 (35.2)
  Former 16 (20.8) 61 (23.1)   77 (22.6)
 Own a car    0.340  
  None 74 (96.1) 242 (91.7)   316 (92.7)
  One 1 (1.3) 13 (4.9)   14 (4.1)
  Two or more 2 (2.6) 9 (3.4)   11 (3.2)
CVD risks - self-reported
 Hypertension    0.004  
  No 53 (68.8) 133 (50.4)   186 (54.5)
  Yes 24 (31.2) 131 (49.6)   155 (45.5)
CVD risks - screened (Ma ± SD)
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.3 ± 6.5 33.0 ± 6.8 < 0.001 31.5 ± 7.3
 SBP (mm Hg) 139.3 ± 23.0 143.7 ± 22.6 0.126 142.7 ± 22.7
DBP (mm Hg) 81.5 ± 12.5 85.3 ± 12.5 0.047 84.6 ± 12.5
Accelerometer physical activity† (Ma ± SD)c
 Moderate (counts/minutes) 300.0 ± 111.8 314.3 ± 118.5 0.540 311.4 ± 116.9
 Vigorous (counts/minutes) 3.9 ± 3.1 3.4 ± 3.5 0.509 3.5 ± 3.4
 Total MVPA (counts/minutes) 303.9 ± 114.9 317.7 ± 122.0   314.9 ± 120.3
Objectively measured built environment (N (%)) md
 Community center    0.835  
  500 49 (63.6) 159 (60.2)   208 (61.0)
  1000 12 (15.6) 48 (18.2)   60 (17.6)
  1600 16 (20.8) 57 (21.6)   73 (21.4)
 Shopping center    0.124  
  500 28 (36.4) 118 (44.7)   146 (42.8)
  1000 37 (48.1) 93 (35.2)   130 (38.1)
  1600 12 (15.6) 53 (20.1)   65 (19.1)
 Taxi Station    0.693  
  500 39 (50.6) 147 (55.7)   169 (49.6)
  1000 9 (11.7) 31 (11.7)   105 (30.8)
  1600 29 (37.7) 86 (32.6)   67 (19.6)
  1. Ma mean, ZARb South African Rand, SD standard deviation, CVD cardiovascular disease; csubsample of 104, md meter
  2. All bold entries are significant (p <0.05)