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Table 2 Effects of individual ACEs on PD

From: Stress begets stress: the association of adverse childhood experiences with psychological distress in the presence of adult life stress

Variable Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) Individual ACEs1 Adjusted OR (95% CI) All individual ACEs in combined model2
Emotional abuse
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.96 (1.56–2.49) 1.93 (1.46–2.55) 1.10 (0.75–1.63)
Sexual abuse
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 2.33 (1.38–3.96) 2.26 (1.20–4.25) 1.78 (0.86–3.66)
Physical abuse
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.75 (1.17–2.60) 1.87 (1.20–2.93) 1.14 (0.67–1.94)
Emotional neglect
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 3.05 (2.41–3.88) 2.79 (2.10–3.70) 1.99 (1.34–2.93)
Physical neglect
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 2.13 (1.55–2.93) 2.24 (1.52–3.31) 1.64 (1.00–2.69)
Domestic violence
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 2.08 (1.53–2.83) 1.91 (1.35–2.72) 1.22 (0.78–1.90)
Parental divorce/separation
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.29 (1.01–1.65) 1.13 (0.85–1.51) 0.96 (0.70–1.31)
Parental death
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.11 (0.87–1.41) 1.26 (0.95–1.67) 1.15 (0.81–1.62)
Substance abuse
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.77 (1.39–2.25) 1.63 (1.22–2.17) 1.24 (0.86–1.80)
Mental illness
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 2.66 (1.95–3.65) 2.72 (1.89–3.91) 2.25 (1.45–3.51)
Incarceration
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.15 (0.89–1.98) 1.12 (0.83–1.52) 0.79 (0.54–1.16)
Chronic illness
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.55 (1.21–1.98) 1.42 (1.07–1.89) 1.07 (0.75–1.52)
Unemployment
 No Ref Ref Ref
 Yes 1.34 (1.07–1.68) 1.16 (0.89–1.51) 0.82 (0.59–1.15)
Marital status
 Single Ref   Ref
 Relationship 0.86 (0.69–1.08)   0.64 (0.50–0.87)
Gender
 Male Ref   Ref
 Female 2.21 (1.76–2.78)   2.73 (1.98–3.77)
SES 0.91 (0.87–0.96)   0.90 (0.84–0.97)
Completed matric
 No Ref   Ref
 Yes 0.81 (0.65–1.02)   0.84 (0.60–1.18)
Currently employed    
 No Ref   Ref
 Yes 0.68 (0.53–0.86)   0.79 (0.58–1.08)
Stressful events
 No Ref   Ref
 Low 1.70 (1.28–2.24)   1.67 (1.14–2.45)
 High 3.22 (2.20–4.71)   1.80 (1.05–3.08)
  1. In unadjusted and adjusted analysis: bold = p < 0.05; 1 Each individual ACE entered as an exposure adjusted for demographic factors; all demographic factors except completing high school were significant at p < 0.05; 2All individual ACEs placed in one multivariate model, also adjusted for demographic factors