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Table 1 Prevalence of ACEs and demographic characteristics of the sample

From: Stress begets stress: the association of adverse childhood experiences with psychological distress in the presence of adult life stress

Variable PD No n (%) PD Yes n (%) Total N (%) p-value
Cumulative ACE Variables
Any ACE
 No 131 (15) 16 (5) 147 (13)  
 Yes 735 (85) 308 (95) 1043 (87) < 0.001
ACE score categories
 None (0 ACEs) 131 (15) 16 (5) 147 (13)  
 1 ACE 180 (21) 55 (17) 235 (20)  
 2 ACEs 161 (19) 51 (16) 212 (18)  
 3 ACEs 137 (16) 44 (14) 181 (15)  
 4 or more ACEs 257 (30) 158 (49) 415 (35) < 0.001
Level of ACEs
 None (0 ACEs) 131 (15) 16 (5) 147 (12)  
 Low (1 to 5) 640 (74) 228 (70) 868 (73)  
 High (6 or more) 95 (11) 80 (25) 175 (15) < 0.001
Abuse
 No 731 (69) 220 (53) 951 (64)  
 Yes 328 (31) 196 (47) 524 (36) < 0.001
Neglect
 No 812 (74) 217 (50) 1029 (67)  
 Yes 282 (26) 214 (50) 496 (33) < 0.001
Household dysfunction
 No 169 (16) 29 (7) 198 (13)  
 Yes 892 (84) 400 (93) 1292 (87) < 0.001
Individual ACE Variables
Emotional abuse
 No 812 (74) 256 (59) 1068 (70)  
 Yes 282 (26) 175 (41) 457 (30) < 0.001
Sexual abuse
 No 1032 (97) 385 (93) 1417 (96)  
 Yes 31 (3) 27 (7) 58 (4) 0.001
Physical abuse
 No 997 (94) 369 (89) 1366 (92)  
 Yes 68 (6) 44 (11) 112 (8) 0.005
Emotional neglect
 No 861 (78) 235 (54) 1096 (72)  
 Yes 236 (22) 197 (46) 433 (28) < 0.001
Physical neglect
 No 992 (91) 355 (82) 1347 (88)  
 Yes 101 (9) 77 (18) 178 (12) < 0.001
Domestic violence
 No 977 (90) 346 (80) 1323 (87)  
 Yes 114 (10) 84 (20) 198 (13) < 0.001
Parental divorce/separation
 No 534 (57) 179 (51) 713 (55)  
 Yes 401 (43) 174 (49) 575 (45) 0.039
Parental death
 No 794 (73) 305 (70) 1099 (72)  
 Yes 301 (27) 128 (30) 429 (28) 0.417
Substance abuse
 No 836 (76) 278 (64) 1114 (73)  
 Yes 264 (24) 155 (36) 419 (27) < 0.001
Mental illness
 No 1003 (91) 345 (80) 1348 (88)  
 Yes 96 (9) 88 (20) 184 (12) < 0.001
Imprisonment
 No 852 (78) 325 (75) 1177 (77)  
 Yes 246 (22) 108 (25) 354 (23) 0.289
Chronic illness
 No 837 (76) 292 (68) 1129 (74)  
 Yes 259 (24) 140 (32) 399 (26) < 0.001
Unemployment
 No 644 (59) 222 (51) 866 (57)  
 Yes 456 (41) 211 (49) 667 (43) 0.010
Age 23 (SD 0.6) 23 (SD 0.6) 23 (SD 0.6) 0.494
Marital status
 Single 538 (49) 228 (52) 766 (50)  
 Marital relationship 567 (51) 207 (48) 774 (50) 0.188
Gender
 Male 594 (54) 150 (34) 744 (48)  
 Female 516 (46) 288 (66) 804 (52) < 0.001
SES 9.4 (SD 2.3) 8.9 (SD 2.3) 9.3 (SD 2.2) 0.002
Secondary school graduation
 No 414 (38) 185 (43) 599 (39)  
 Yes 680 (62) 247 (57) 927 (61) 0.073
Currently employed
 No 450 (47) 219 (57) 669 (50)  
 Yes 503 (53) 166 (43) 669 (50) 0.001
Stressful life events (previous 6 months)
 No 352 (33) 85 (20) 437 (29)  
 Low 619 (58) 254 (61) 873 (59)  
 High 99 (9) 77 (19) 176 (12) < 0.001