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Table 1 Sample characteristics according to smoking history and sex

From: Movement behaviours are associated with lung function in middle-aged and older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Canadian longitudinal study on aging

Characteristics Never Smoked < 10 Pack Years 10 or more Pack Years
Males (n = 3872) Females (n = 4540) Males (n = 2067) Females (n = 2278) Males (n = 2328) Females (n = 1756)
Age (years)   60.7 ± 10.0 a,b 62.0 ± 10.3 62.1 ± 9.9 a,c 61.6 ± 9.9 64.4 ± 9.5 b,c 62.3 ± 9.4
BMI (kg/m2)   27.9 ± 4.6 b 27.0 ± 5.5 b 27.9 ± 4.1 c 27.2 ± 5.3 c 28.9 ± 4.8 b,c 28.2 ± 6.1 b,c
Education (% of sample) Less than secondary school graduation 2.0% 3.7% 3.1% 4.2% 7.4% 7.6%
Secondary school graduation, no post-secondary education 5.7% 8.8% 8.4% 9.5% 11.3% 15.4%
Some post-secondary education 5.8% 6.1% 7.1% 8.1% 9.5% 9.8%
Post-secondary degree/diploma 86.5% 81.5% 81.4% 78.2% 71.8% 67.1%
Retirement Status Retired 33.1% 43.5% 37.6% 43.8% 47.0% 45.4%
Not or partly retired 66.9% 56.5% 62.4% 56.2% 53.0% 54.6%
Activity Levels (hours/week) In sitting activities 17.4 ± 6.3 b 17.5 ± 6.3 b 17.4 ± 6.2 c 17.8 ± 6.3 c 18.6 ± 5.8 b,c 18.6 ± 5.9 b,c
Walking 4.3 ± 4.6 a 4.4 ± 4.5 4.7 ± 4.7 a 4.6 ± 4.6 4.5 ± 5.0 4.3 ± 4.5
Light activities 0.9 ± 2.8 0.9 ± 2.3 1.0 ± 3.0 0.8 ± 2.3 1.0 ± 2.9 0.8 ± 2.5
Moderate sports or recreational activities 0.9 ± 3.0 0.6 ± 2.2 1.1 ± 3.3 0.7 ± 2.3 0.9 ± 3.2 0.7 ± 2.3
Strenuous sports or recreational activities 1.9 ± 3.4 b 1.4 ± 3.0 b 2.0 ± 3.7 c 1.5 ± 3.1 c 1.5 ± 3.4 b,c 0.9 ± 2.3 b,c
Increase muscle strength and endurance 0.8 ± 1.8 b 0.6 ± 1.5 0.9 ± 1.9 c 0.7 ± 1.7 c 0.7 ± 1.8 b,c 0.6 ± 1.5 c
Sleep Less than 6 h 9.5% 12.0% 10.1% 12.8% 12.3% 14.2%
6 to 8 h 87.1% 82.8% 86.2% 80.3% 82.6% 78.8%
More than 8 h 3.4% 5.1% 3.8% 6.9% 5.1% 7.0%
FEV1 (L)   3.4 ± 0.7 b 2.4 ± 0.5 a,b 3.3 ± 0.7 c 2.4 ± 0.5 a,c 3.0 ± 0.7 b,c 2.2 ± 0.5 b,c
FVC (L)   4.3 ± 0.8 b 3.0 ± 0.6 a,b 4.3 ± 0.8 c 3.1 ± 0.6 a,c 4.0 ± 0.8 b,c 2.9 ± 0.6 b,c
FEV1% predicted   98.6 ± 14.6 b 101.0 ± 15.7 b 99.3 ± 14.8 c 101.3 ± 15.1 c 92.4 ± b,c 16.2 94.9 ± 16.1 b,c
FVC % predicted   92.8 ± 13.1 b 95.8 ± 14.1 a,b 93.5 ± 12.6 c 96.8 ± 13.1 a,c 88.3 ± 13.5 b,c 92.5 ± 13.5 b,c
  1. ap < 0.05 for Never Smoked vs. < 10 pack years
  2. bp < 0.05 for Never Smoked vs. 10 or more pack years
  3. cp < 0.05 for < 10 pack years vs. 10 or more pack years