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Table 2 Included studies: study design, country, data sources, methods of analysis, and outcomes of interest

From: The impact of participatory budgeting on health and wellbeing: a scoping review of evaluations

First author date Country Data source(s) Individual/aggregate data Analysis Outcome(s) Source of funding for evaluation
Investigator connection
Randomised controlled trials
Beuermann
2014 [21]
Russia Municipal data survey (n = 109)
Household survey (n = 1645), political representatives (n = 109)
Aggregate + Individual
Fixed effects regression comparing 2 PB treatment areas and control non-PB areas Tax revenue. Allocation of PB funds. Participation in PB. World Bank (IDB); Government of the Russian Federation.
PB consultants for the RCT conducted evaluation
Quantitative observational studies
Schneider
2002 [22]
Brazil Municipal data (n = 497)
Aggregate
Linear regression
comparing PB and non-PB municipalities
Impact on participation in PB by spending of PB None stated
Academic investigator
Biderman 2007 [24] Brazil RAIS administrative records, census data
Aggregate
Fixed effects regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Tax revenue, infant mortality, education Part funded by World Bank
Academic investigators
Wampler
2007/2012 [30, 31]
Brazil Survey (n = 833)
Individual
Logistic regression Impact on further political activities National Science Foundation
Academic investigator
World Bank
2008 [8]
Brazil Municipal data (n = 150+)
Survey (n = 1300)
Aggregate + Individual
Difference in differences
comparing PB and non-PB municipalities
Municipal budget PB expenditure, poverty, sanitation, infant mortality, education, participation of disadvantaged groups Social Development Unit of the Latin America and
Caribbean Region (LCSSO) and the Social Development Department (SDV) of the World Bank.
NGO investigation
Boulding
2010 [9]
Brazil Brazilian Institute of Geography and Economics, census
Aggregate
Linear regression
comparing PB and non-PB municipalities
Poverty, inequality (GINI), life expectancy, infant mortality, adult and child literacy. Allocation of PB funding None stated. Academic evaluation
Garcia
2011 [29]
Spain Center for Sociological Research
Survey (n = 1004)
Individual
Linear regression analysis
comparing district council system
Participation of women, impact on further political activities Women’s Institute and the National R & D & I Plan of the Government of Spain.
Academic investigator
Borba
2012 [32]
Brazil NUPESAL (Nucleo de Pesquisas Sobre a America Latina)
Survey (n = 533)
Individual
Logistic regression analysis comparing residents involved in PB and non-PB involved residents Impact on further political activities, participation in PB None stated
Academic investigator
Jaramillo
2013 [23]
Peru Municipal data (n = 219) from MSUNASS, PB-DNPP, MEF-SIAF, ONPE, JNE, RENAMU.
Interviews (n =?) in 4 PB areas
Aggregate + Individual
Linear regression analysis comparing 2007 data with 2001 Sanitation (water coverage and continuity) Institutional Capacity Strengthening Fund (ICSF), managed by Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB), Government of the People’s Republic of China.
NGO investigation
Da Silva
2014 [33]
Brazil Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Aggregate
Cross tabulation descriptive analysis PB investment per capita by deprived area. Impact on PB results by type of PB Not stated
Academic investigator
Goncalves 2014 [25] Brazil Municipal data (n = 3651) from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Economics, census
Aggregate
Fixed effects regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Municipal budget PB expenditure on education, housing, sanitation, cultural. Poverty, infant mortality Not stated
Academic investigator
Touchton
2014 [26]
Brazil Municipal data (n = 253) from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Economics, census
Aggregate
Random effects regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Municipal budget PB expenditure on healthcare and sanitation. Infant mortality Boise State University’s College of Social Science and Public Affairs
Academic investigators
Jaramillo
2015 [27]
Peru Municipal data
Survey 2 wave (n = 100)
Aggregate + Individual
Linear regression analysis comparing 2010 data with 2007 Number and quality of agricultural services National Science Foundation and the Boren National Security Education Program
Not for Profit research centre/academic investigators
Grillos 2017 [28] Indonesia Municipal data Aggregate Linear regression analysis comparing city sub-districts Allocation of PB funding Harvard Kennedy School Indonesia Program
Academic investigator
Single case studies
Abers
1998 [34]
Brazil Interviews (n = 90), survey (n = 622), participant observation in study area
Individual
Qualitative Mobilisation of neighbourhood residents. Impact on further political activities. Participation in PB by low income. Not stated
Academic investigator
Baiocchi
2001 [16]
Brazil Survey (n = unclear, 10% plenary meeting attendees)
Individual
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB of disadvantaged groups (women, low income, low education). National Science Foundation, Inter American Foundation, and University of Wisconsin
Academic investigator
Baiocchi
2003 [47]
Brazil Interviews (n = 65), survey (n = 74), participant observation at PB assemblies
Individual
Qualitative Use of PB assembly meetings for further community activities. Not stated
Academic investigator
Hernandez
2010 [41]
Brazil Interviews (n = 30), participant observation at PB assemblies. Data from Data from Coordenadoria do Orçamento Participativo (COP)
Individual
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB of disadvantaged groups: Afro-Brazilians, senior citizens, children and adolescents, the GLBT community, women, indigenous groups, homeless, and people with disabilities. Tinker Foundation, the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and the Graduate School at Brown University
Academic investigator
Walker
2013/2016 [44, 45]
Brazil Interviews (n = 20), participant observation in study area
Individual
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Political and social learning (negotiations for housing) National Science Foundation and the Foundation for Urban and Regional studentship
Academic investigators
Stewart
2014 [20]
USA Municipal data (City of Chicago’s Aldermanic Menu reports), census data, PB evaluation reports
Aggregate + Individual
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB. Allocation of PB funds. None stated
Academic investigators
Célérier
2015 [36]
Brazil Interviews (n = 18), survey (n = 46), participant observation Qualitative Participation in PB. Impact on political activities. HEC Foundation and of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Academic investigators
Kendall
2015 [18]
Malawi Survey, data collection (5 sites) Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Impact on democratic processes relating to the school, local communities and funding bodies. TAG Philanthropic Foundation
Academic investigators
McNulty
2015 [43]
Peru Interviews (n = unclear), government data Single case study Participation in PB by women. Franklin and Marshall College and The American Association of University Women
Academic investigator
Hajdarowicz 2018 [63] Columbia Interviews (n = 19), participant observation Qualitative Participation in PB by women. None stated
Academic investigator
Multiple case studies
Nylen
2003 [37]
  Interviews (n = unclear), survey (n = 1280)
Individual
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB of disadvantaged groups (women, low education). Empowerment, impact on further political activities. Academic investigator
Cabannes
2005 [49]
South America (multiple) Survey (n = 4 PB schemes)
?
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Allocation of PB funds. UNDP/Habitat
NGO evaluation
Renno
2010 [51]
Brazil Survey 3 wave (n = unclear) Qualitative Political learning. Impact on political activities. None stated
Academic investigator
SQW Consulting
2011 [19]
UK Survey (n = unclear). Municipal data [check] Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Political and social learning Department for Communities and Local Government
Government evaluation
Wu
2011 [46]
China Interviews (n = 15), Survey (n = 547) Qualitative Political and social learning China Development Research Foundation (CDRF) Chinese central government, People’s Bank of China
Academic investigators
Bassoli
2012 [48]
Italy Survey 3 wave (2002/3 n = 12; 2005 n = 4; 2007/9 n = 9) Qualitative Democratic characteristics of PB schemes: inclusion, participation, the role of the opposition, and transparency. None stated
Academic investigator
Luchmann
2012 [42]
Brazil Focus group PB delegates and councillors, survey (n = 47) Qualitative Political and social learning CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa / National Research Council)
Academic investigator
Talpin
2012 [38]
Italy Interviews (n = 12), participant observation at 54 PB meetings Qualitative Participation in PB. Political learning. Impact on further political activities. None stated
Academic investigator
Cabannes 2015 [39] Multiple across South America, North America, Africa, Asia, Europe Interviews (n = 12), Survey (n = 20)
Aggregate + Individual
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Impact on political processes of municipality. Water supply, sanitation, public transport, roads, electricity supply Aid UK, UK Government
NGO (IIED) evaluation
del Prado
2015 [40]
Philippines Interviews (n = unclear), focus groups (n = unclear). Municipal data (sources unclear)
Individual
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Allocation of PB funds Government think tank evaluation
Džinic 2016 [17] Eastern Europe
Multiple
Municipal data from municipality websites, press and official reports
Aggregate
Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Allocation of PB funds. None stated
Academic investigators
Montambeault
2016 [50]
Brazil Survey (2009 n = 967, 2014 n = 473)
Individual
Qualitative Participation in PB. Emerging Scholar grant from the Fonds de la Recherche du Québec—Société et Culture
Academic investigator
Gregorčič 2016 [52] Solvenia, Iceland Interviews (n = 12, Solvenia), participant observation (Iceland) Qualitative Political and social learning Not stated
Academic investigator