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Table 2 Included studies: study design, country, data sources, methods of analysis, and outcomes of interest

From: The impact of participatory budgeting on health and wellbeing: a scoping review of evaluations

First author date Country Data source(s) Individual/aggregate data Analysis Outcome(s) Source of funding for evaluation Investigator connection
Randomised controlled trials
Beuermann 2014 [21] Russia Municipal data survey (n = 109) Household survey (n = 1645), political representatives (n = 109) Aggregate + Individual Fixed effects regression comparing 2 PB treatment areas and control non-PB areas Tax revenue. Allocation of PB funds. Participation in PB. World Bank (IDB); Government of the Russian Federation. PB consultants for the RCT conducted evaluation
Quantitative observational studies
Schneider 2002 [22] Brazil Municipal data (n = 497) Aggregate Linear regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Impact on participation in PB by spending of PB None stated Academic investigator
Biderman 2007 [24] Brazil RAIS administrative records, census data Aggregate Fixed effects regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Tax revenue, infant mortality, education Part funded by World Bank Academic investigators
Wampler 2007/2012 [30, 31] Brazil Survey (n = 833) Individual Logistic regression Impact on further political activities National Science Foundation Academic investigator
World Bank 2008 [8] Brazil Municipal data (n = 150+) Survey (n = 1300) Aggregate + Individual Difference in differences comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Municipal budget PB expenditure, poverty, sanitation, infant mortality, education, participation of disadvantaged groups Social Development Unit of the Latin America and Caribbean Region (LCSSO) and the Social Development Department (SDV) of the World Bank. NGO investigation
Boulding 2010 [9] Brazil Brazilian Institute of Geography and Economics, census Aggregate Linear regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Poverty, inequality (GINI), life expectancy, infant mortality, adult and child literacy. Allocation of PB funding None stated. Academic evaluation
Garcia 2011 [29] Spain Center for Sociological Research Survey (n = 1004) Individual Linear regression analysis comparing district council system Participation of women, impact on further political activities Women’s Institute and the National R & D & I Plan of the Government of Spain. Academic investigator
Borba 2012 [32] Brazil NUPESAL (Nucleo de Pesquisas Sobre a America Latina) Survey (n = 533) Individual Logistic regression analysis comparing residents involved in PB and non-PB involved residents Impact on further political activities, participation in PB None stated Academic investigator
Jaramillo 2013 [23] Peru Municipal data (n = 219) from MSUNASS, PB-DNPP, MEF-SIAF, ONPE, JNE, RENAMU. Interviews (n =?) in 4 PB areas Aggregate + Individual Linear regression analysis comparing 2007 data with 2001 Sanitation (water coverage and continuity) Institutional Capacity Strengthening Fund (ICSF), managed by Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Government of the People’s Republic of China. NGO investigation
Da Silva 2014 [33] Brazil Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Aggregate Cross tabulation descriptive analysis PB investment per capita by deprived area. Impact on PB results by type of PB Not stated Academic investigator
Goncalves 2014 [25] Brazil Municipal data (n = 3651) from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Economics, census Aggregate Fixed effects regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Municipal budget PB expenditure on education, housing, sanitation, cultural. Poverty, infant mortality Not stated Academic investigator
Touchton 2014 [26] Brazil Municipal data (n = 253) from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Economics, census Aggregate Random effects regression comparing PB and non-PB municipalities Municipal budget PB expenditure on healthcare and sanitation. Infant mortality Boise State University’s College of Social Science and Public Affairs Academic investigators
Jaramillo 2015 [27] Peru Municipal data Survey 2 wave (n = 100) Aggregate + Individual Linear regression analysis comparing 2010 data with 2007 Number and quality of agricultural services National Science Foundation and the Boren National Security Education Program Not for Profit research centre/academic investigators
Grillos 2017 [28] Indonesia Municipal data Aggregate Linear regression analysis comparing city sub-districts Allocation of PB funding Harvard Kennedy School Indonesia Program Academic investigator
Single case studies
Abers 1998 [34] Brazil Interviews (n = 90), survey (n = 622), participant observation in study area Individual Qualitative Mobilisation of neighbourhood residents. Impact on further political activities. Participation in PB by low income. Not stated Academic investigator
Baiocchi 2001 [16] Brazil Survey (n = unclear, 10% plenary meeting attendees) Individual Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB of disadvantaged groups (women, low income, low education). National Science Foundation, Inter American Foundation, and University of Wisconsin Academic investigator
Baiocchi 2003 [47] Brazil Interviews (n = 65), survey (n = 74), participant observation at PB assemblies Individual Qualitative Use of PB assembly meetings for further community activities. Not stated Academic investigator
Hernandez 2010 [41] Brazil Interviews (n = 30), participant observation at PB assemblies. Data from Data from Coordenadoria do Orçamento Participativo (COP) Individual Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB of disadvantaged groups: Afro-Brazilians, senior citizens, children and adolescents, the GLBT community, women, indigenous groups, homeless, and people with disabilities. Tinker Foundation, the Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies and the Graduate School at Brown University Academic investigator
Walker 2013/2016 [44, 45] Brazil Interviews (n = 20), participant observation in study area Individual Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Political and social learning (negotiations for housing) National Science Foundation and the Foundation for Urban and Regional studentship Academic investigators
Stewart 2014 [20] USA Municipal data (City of Chicago’s Aldermanic Menu reports), census data, PB evaluation reports Aggregate + Individual Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB. Allocation of PB funds. None stated Academic investigators
Célérier 2015 [36] Brazil Interviews (n = 18), survey (n = 46), participant observation Qualitative Participation in PB. Impact on political activities. HEC Foundation and of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs Academic investigators
Kendall 2015 [18] Malawi Survey, data collection (5 sites) Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Impact on democratic processes relating to the school, local communities and funding bodies. TAG Philanthropic Foundation Academic investigators
McNulty 2015 [43] Peru Interviews (n = unclear), government data Single case study Participation in PB by women. Franklin and Marshall College and The American Association of University Women Academic investigator
Hajdarowicz 2018 [63] Columbia Interviews (n = 19), participant observation Qualitative Participation in PB by women. None stated Academic investigator
Multiple case studies
Nylen 2003 [37]   Interviews (n = unclear), survey (n = 1280) Individual Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Participation in PB of disadvantaged groups (women, low education). Empowerment, impact on further political activities. Academic investigator
Cabannes 2005 [49] South America (multiple) Survey (n = 4 PB schemes) ? Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Allocation of PB funds. UNDP/Habitat NGO evaluation
Renno 2010 [51] Brazil Survey 3 wave (n = unclear) Qualitative Political learning. Impact on political activities. None stated Academic investigator
SQW Consulting 2011 [19] UK Survey (n = unclear). Municipal data [check] Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Political and social learning Department for Communities and Local Government Government evaluation
Wu 2011 [46] China Interviews (n = 15), Survey (n = 547) Qualitative Political and social learning China Development Research Foundation (CDRF) Chinese central government, People’s Bank of China Academic investigators
Bassoli 2012 [48] Italy Survey 3 wave (2002/3 n = 12; 2005 n = 4; 2007/9 n = 9) Qualitative Democratic characteristics of PB schemes: inclusion, participation, the role of the opposition, and transparency. None stated Academic investigator
Luchmann 2012 [42] Brazil Focus group PB delegates and councillors, survey (n = 47) Qualitative Political and social learning CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa / National Research Council) Academic investigator
Talpin 2012 [38] Italy Interviews (n = 12), participant observation at 54 PB meetings Qualitative Participation in PB. Political learning. Impact on further political activities. None stated Academic investigator
Cabannes 2015 [39] Multiple across South America, North America, Africa, Asia, Europe Interviews (n = 12), Survey (n = 20) Aggregate + Individual Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Impact on political processes of municipality. Water supply, sanitation, public transport, roads, electricity supply Aid UK, UK Government NGO (IIED) evaluation
del Prado 2015 [40] Philippines Interviews (n = unclear), focus groups (n = unclear). Municipal data (sources unclear) Individual Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Allocation of PB funds Government think tank evaluation
Džinic 2016 [17] Eastern Europe Multiple Municipal data from municipality websites, press and official reports Aggregate Qualitative + descriptive quantitative Allocation of PB funds. None stated Academic investigators
Montambeault 2016 [50] Brazil Survey (2009 n = 967, 2014 n = 473) Individual Qualitative Participation in PB. Emerging Scholar grant from the Fonds de la Recherche du Québec—Société et Culture Academic investigator
Gregorčič 2016 [52] Solvenia, Iceland Interviews (n = 12, Solvenia), participant observation (Iceland) Qualitative Political and social learning Not stated Academic investigator