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Table 1 Descriptive analysis and differences test in people living with HIV/AIDS in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil

From: Lipodystrophy diagnosis in people living with HIV/AIDS: prediction and validation of sex-specific anthropometric models

Variables Participants (n = 106) Differences test p value
Men (n = 65) Women (n = 41)
Mean ± SD 95% CI Mean ± SD 95% CI
Age (years) 46.3 ± 8.9 44.2 to 48.5 46.2 ± 11.2 42.9 to 49.9 0.0 0.966
DXA-Total body weight (kg) 70.7 ± 11.5 67.8 to 73.4 63.6 ± 11.6 59.7 to 67.1 3.0 0.003*
DXA-Total trunk fat (kg) 26.0 ± 6.3 24.4 to 27.5 33.8 ± 7.0 31.4 to 35.9 −5.8 < 0.001
DXA-Total legs fat (kg) 5.2 ± 2.3 4.6 to 5.8 8.1 ± 3.6 7.0 to 9.2 −4.9 < 0.001*
DXA-FMR 1.2 ± 0.3 1.1 to 1.3 0.9 ± 0.2 0.9 to 1.0 5.2 < 0.001*
Height (cm) 170.3 ± 6.5 168.7 to 172.1 156.0 ± 5.8 154.2 to 158.0 11.5 < 0.001*
Diagnosis of HIV (months) 119.6 ± 74.8 100.5 to 137.6 105.5 ± 86.0 79.3 to 131.9 0.9a 0.387
Exposure to cART (months) 92.6 ± 63.2 76.0 to 107.9 79.4 ± 63.0 60.2 to 99.7 1.0a 0.306
Formal Education (years) 9.0 ± 3.6 8.0 to 9.8 7.3 ± 2.9 6.4 to 8.2 2.6a 0.011*
White (n/%) 45 (69.2) 22 (53.6)
Black (n/%) 5 (7.7) 5 (12.2)
Asian (n/%) 4 (6.2) 5 (12.2)
Brown (n/%) 11 (16.9) 9 (22.0)
Type of cART (With-PI) (n/%) 31 (47.7) 15 (36.6)
Type of cART (Without-PI) (n/%) 34 (52.3) 26 (63.4)
Anthropometric Measurements
Body Circumferences (cm)
  Left arm extended 28.7 ± 3.0 28.0 to 29.5 28.0 ± 3.8 26.8 to 29.1 1.2 0.255
  Left arm contracted 29.6 ± 2.9 28.9 to 30.4 29.0 ± 3.8 27.8 to 30.1 0.9 0.359
  Left forearm 26.2 ± 1.8 25.8 to 26.6 23.9 ± 2.2 23.2 to 24.5 5.8 < 0.001*
  Left wrist 16.7 ± 2.0 16.2 to 17.2 15.7 ± 1.4 15.2 to 16.1 3.0 0.004*
  Right arm extended 29.1 ± 3.0 28.4 to 29.8 28.7 ± 3.8 27.5 to 29.8 0.6 0.526
  Right arm extended corrected 26.5 ± 2.3 26.0 to 27.1 23.3 ± 2.2 22.6 to 24.0 7.1 < 0.001*
  Right arm contracted 30.2 ± 2.8 29.6 to 30.9 29.6 ± 3.8 28.4 to 30.7 1.0 0.335
  Right arm contracted corrected 27.6 ± 2.3 27.1 to 28.2 24.2 ± 2.3 23.5 to 24.9 7.5 < 0.001*
  Right forearm 26.7 ± 1.8 26.3 to 27.2 24.4 ± 2.1 23.7 to 25.0 6.0 < 0.001*
  Right wrist 16.7 ± 1.0 16.4 to 16.9 15.7 ± 1.4 15.3 to 16.1 3.9 < 0.001*
  Left thigh 49.8 ± 8.5 47.4 to 51.7 54.2 ± 10.0 50.7 to 57.1 −2.4 0.016*
  Left medial calf 35.0 ± 2.7 34.3 to 35.7 34.2 ± 3.9 32.9 to 35.4 1.3 0.214
  Left ankle 21.7 ± 1.5 21.3 to 22.1 20.9 ± 1.7 20.3 to 21.4 2.5 0.016*
  Right thigh 51.7 ± 5.5 50.3 to 53.1 55.6 ± 7.9 52.9 to 58.0 −2.9 0.004*
  Right thigh corrected 47.9 ± 4.4 46.8 to 49.1 47.9 ± 5.4 46.2 to 49.6 0.0 0.977
  Right medial calf 35.0 ± 2.8 34.3 to 35.7 34.3 ± 4.0 33.0 to 35.4 1.1 0.283
  Right medial calf corrected 33.2 ± 2.6 32.5 to 33.9 29.9 ± 2.9 29.0 to 30.8 6.0 < 0.001*
  Right ankle 21.7 ± 1.4 21.3 to 22.0 20.7 ± 1.6 20.2 to 21.2 3.1 0.003*
  Shoulder 108.4 ± 6.8 106.6 to 110.0 100.4 ± 7.6 97.8 to 102.8 5.5 < 0.001*
  Breast 97.9 ± 6.8 96.1 to 99.4 85.9 ± 7.0 83.8 to 88.2 8.5 < 0.001*
  Waist 89.05 ± 8.9 86.7 to 91.2 83.7 ± 8.7 80.8 to 86.3 3.0 0.003*
  Abdomen 90.4 ± 13.5 86.8 to 93.3 92.4 ± 10.3 89.3 to 95.6 −0.8 0.409
  Hip 91.8 ± 7.5 90.0 to 93.6 97.9 ± 10.3 94.5 to 100.9 −3.5 0.001*
  Waist/Hip ratio 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 to 1.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.8 to 0.9 6.9 < 0.001*
  Waist/Thigh ratio 1.8 ± 0.3 1.7 to 1.9 1.6 ± 0.2 1.5 to 1.6 4.4 < 0.001*
  Waist/Medial calf leg ratio 2.6 ± 0.2 2.5 to 2.6 2.5 ± 0.3 2.4 to 2.6 1.8 0.071
  Abdomen/Hip ratio 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 to 1.0 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 to 1.0 2.1 0.043*
  Abdomen/Arm extended ratio 3.3 ± 0.5 3.2 to 3.4 3.6 ± 0.3 3.5 to 3.7 −4.5 < 0.001*
Skinfold Thickness (mm)
 Triceps 8.3 ± 4.5 7.3 to 9.5 17.3 ± 8.0 14.6 to 19.7 −7.2 < 0.001*
 Subscapular 18.8 ± 7.5 16.7 to 20.7 23.4 ± 8.9 20.5 to 26.2 −2.8 0.006*
 Suprailiac 15.6 ± 8.7 13.4 to 17.7 24.5 ± 9.1 21.5 to 27.2 −5.0 < 0.001*
 Horizontal abdomen 19.0 ± 8.7 17.0 to 21.2 24.8 ± 8.8 22.0 to 27.5 −3.3 0.002*
 Thigh 11.9 ± 8.4 9.9 to 14.1 24.4 ± 11.1 20.7 to 27.6 −6.4 < 0.001*
 Medial calf 5.7 ± 4.5 4.6 to 7.0 14.0 ± 7.6 11.5 to 16.3 −6.9 < 0.001*
 Subscapular/Medial calf ratio 4.8 ± 3.6 4.0 to 5.7 3.2 ± 4.6 2.0 to 4.8 2.0 0.044*
 Suprailiac/Triceps ratio 2.0 ± 1.0 1.8 to 2.3 1.6 ± 0.6 1.4 to 1.8 3.0 0.004*
 Abdomen/Thigh ratio 2.0 ± 1.0 1.8 to 2.3 1.3 ± 1.0 1.0 to 1.6 3.7 < 0.001*
 Sum Sk Trunk/Apen 2.4 ± 1.0 2.2 to 2.7 1.6 ± 0.8 1.3 to 1.8 4.7 < 0.001*
  1. Note: HIV Human Immunodeficiency virus, Aids Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; 95% CI: Confidence interval; Signal aMann Whitnney test; Signal *: p < 0,05; FMR Fat Mass Ratio, DXA Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, cART Combined Antiretroviral Therapy, PI Protease Inhibitor, Sum SK Trunk/Apen Sum of Skinfold thickness of Trunk (abdomen+subscapular+suprailiac) to sum appendicular Skinfold Thickness (triceps+thigh+medial calf) ratio