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Table 2 Effect of early pregnancy weight (kg), height (m), and BMI (kg/m2) on haemoglobin concentration (g/dL) at booking with corresponding anaemia risks

From: Does body mass index early in pregnancy influence the risk of maternal anaemia? An observational study in Indonesian and Ghanaian women

  Indonesian cohort Ghanaian cohort
Linear regression
   Coefficient 95% CI P Coefficient 95% CI P
 Weight (kg)
  Haemoglobin (g/dL) Crude 0.021 0.01, 0.03 < 0.001 0.017 0.01, 0.03 < 0.001
Model 1 0.02 0.01, 0.03 < 0.001 0.017 0.01, 0.03 < 0.001
Model 2 0.02 0.01, 0.03 < 0.001 0.017 0.01, 0.03 < 0.001
Model 3 0.02 0.01, 0.03 < 0.001 0.016 0.01, 0.02 < 0.001
 Height (cm)
  Haemoglobin (g/dL) Crude −0.004 −0.02, 0.02 0.71 0.014 −0.001, 0.03 0.07
Model 1 −0.004 −0.02, 0.02 0.67 0.012 − 0.003, 0.03 0.13
Model 2 −0.005 −0.02, 0.01 0.62 0.012 −0.003, 0.03 0.13
Model 3 −0.005 −0.02, 0.01 0.61 0.002 −0.01, 0.02 0.79
 Early pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
  Haemoglobin (g/dL) Crude 0.054 0.03, 0.08 < 0.001 0.042 0.02, 0.06 < 0.001
Model 1 0.054 0.03, 0.08 < 0.001 0.042 0.02, 0.06 < 0.001
Model 2 0.054 0.03, 0.08 < 0.001 0.041 0.02, 0.06 < 0.001
Model 3 0.054 0.03, 0.08 < 0.001 0.044 0.02, 0.07 < 0.001
Logistic regression
   OR 95% CI P OR 95% CI P
 Weight (kg)
  Anaemia (< 11.0 g/dL) Crude 0.97 0.94, 1.00 0.03 0.98 0.97, 0.99 < 0.001
Model 1 0.96 0.93, 1.00 0.03 0.98 0.97, 0.99 0.001
Model 2 0.96 0.93, 1.00 0.04 0.98 0.97, 0.99 0.001
Model 3 0.96 0.93, 1.00 0.03 0.98 0.97, 0.99 0.002
 Height (cm)
  Anaemia (< 11.0 g/dL) Crude 1.04 0.99, 1.10 0.13 0.99 0.97, 1.01 0.53
Model 1 1.05 0.99, 1.11 0.09 1 0.98, 1.02 0.75
Model 2 1.05 0.99, 1.11 0.09 1 0.98, 1.02 0.75
Model 3 1.05 0.99, 1.11 0.1 1.01 0.99, 1.03 0.5
 Early pregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
  Anaemia (< 11.0 g/dL) Crude 0.89 0.82, 0.97 0.01 0.95 0.92, 0.97 < 0.001
Model 1 0.88 0.81, 0.97 0.01 0.95 0.92, 0.98 0.001
Model 2 0.88 0.80, 0.97 0.01 0.95 0.92, 0.98 0.001
Model 3 0.88 0.81, 0.97 0.01 0.95 0.92, 0.98 < 0.001
  1. OR odds ratio
  2. Results are expressed as linear regression coefficients of haemoglobin concentration in g/dL or logistic regression coefficients of maternal anemia for every 1 unit increase in exposures
  3. Model 1 is adjusted for maternal age, education level and employment status
  4. Model 2 is adjusted as for model 1 and for gravidity
  5. Model 3 is adjusted as for model 2 and for secondhand smoking exposure in Indonesian cohort or anaemia-associated-comorbidities in Ghanaian cohort