Skip to main content

Table 3 Relationships between childhood community resilience assets, child health and well-being measures and ACE count

From: Adverse childhood experiences and sources of childhood resilience: a retrospective study of their combined relationships with child health and educational attendance

  Percentage with each condition/outcome
Common childhood conditions    ACE count
Childhood resilience assets Asthma Allergies Headache Digestive Poor childhood healtha High school absenteeismb 0 1 2–3 ≥4  
  % X 2
P
% X 2
P
% X 2
P
% X 2
P
% X 2
P
% X 2
P
% % % % X 2
P
Community help No 14.4 1.325 22.4 9.573 26.3 6.230 14.1 3.103 23.7 37.396 16.6 26.303 38.6 16.5 22.5 22.4 152.624
  Yes 12.7 0.250 17.2 0.002 21.8 0.013 11.7 0.078 13.8 < 0.001 9.6 < 0.001 58.2 20.2 13.0 8.7 < 0.001
Adult available No 15.4 2.595 22.9 6.925 29.4 14.673 18.5 22.711 29.1 69.472 20.5 48.036 30.7 15.7 20.7 32.9 271.993
  Yes 12.7 0.107 17.8 0.009 21.6 < 0.001 10.8 < 0.001 13.8 < 0.001 9.6 < 0.001 57.4 19.8 15.0 7.8 < 0.001
Given opportunities No 18.9 17.258 23.6 8.889 29.5 13.546 17.5 14.456 31.8 96.315 24.8 99.173 29.3 15.9 22.2 32.6 256.338
  Yes 11.8 < 0.001 17.8 0.003 21.7 < 0.001 11.2 < 0.001 13.4 < 0.001 8.6 < 0.001 57.3 19.7 14.7 8.3 < 0.001
Treated fairly No 17.0 4.820 30.3 33.557 35.2 31.630 19.6 18.479 36.6 106.645 29.1 112.219 21.9 13.0 23.3 41.8 332.704
  Yes 12.7 0.280 17.1 < 0.001 21.4 < 0.001 11.4 < 0.001 14.0 < 0.001 9.2 < 0.001 56.3 19.9 15.1 8.7 < 0.001
Culturally engaged No 18.1 12.628 24.7 13.322 30.8 19.834 16.7 10.092 31.0 84.623 21.5 53.904 30.0 16.7 21.3 32.0 232.332
  Yes 12.1 < 0.001 17.5 < 0.001 21.4 < 0.001 11.4 < 0.001 13.6 < 0.001 9.5 < 0.001 56.0 19.5 14.9 8.6 < 0.001
Supportive friends No 18.2 7.596 25.7 10.844 34.8 26.966 19.4 16.001 38.6 117.287 26.6 74.639 28.8 11.3 23.8 36.1 201.740
  Yes 12.6 0.006 18.0 < 0.001 21.6 < 0.001 11.5 < 0.001 14.0 < 0.001 9.8 < 0.001 54.9 20.1 15.1 10.0 < 0.001
Role model No 19.7 12.791 27.6 17.618 34.0 22.878 20.3 20.062 38.7 117.471 28.6 94.168 18.7 13.7 22.9 44.8 356.495
  Yes 12.4 < 0.001 17.7 < 0.001 21.8 < 0.001 11.4 < 0.001 14.0 < 0.001 9.5 < 0.001 56.3 19.7 15.3 8.8 < 0.001
  1. For full description of each resilience factor see Additional file 1: Table S1. aSelf-rated overall health in childhood was rated ‘poor’ for responses fair or poor, other options were excellent, very good or good; bSecondary school absenteeism was rated high if > 20 days per year