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Table 2 Risk of bias assessments among 24 relationships from 13 included articles [30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42]

From: Social determinants of prostate cancer in the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Article (n = 13) Relationship (n = 24) Bias domain
Endpoint Social determinant Confounding Participant selection Missing data Measurement of outcomes Selective reporting Overall
Bray, 2016 [42] Outcome Residence Moderate Unclear Unclear Low Low Unclear
Fernández, 2005 [30, 31]a Frequency Education Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Frequency Ethnicity Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Frequency Marital Status Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Frequency Occupation Moderate Low Low Low Serious Moderate
Fernández, 2005 [30, 31]a Frequency Education Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Frequency Ethnicity Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Frequency Marital Status Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Jackson, 2012 [35]b Frequency Education Moderate Low Unclear Low Low Moderate
Jackson, 2013 [32]b Frequency Education Moderate Low Serious Low Low Moderate
Jackson, 2015 [39]b Frequency Education Moderate Low Serious Low Low Moderate
McDonald, 2011 [36]d Frequency Education Low Low Low Low Low Low
Frequency Marital Status Low Low Low Low Low Low
Multigner, 2010 [37] Frequency Education Serious Serious Low Low Low Serious
Nemesure, 2013 [33]d Frequency Education Moderate Low Serious Low Low Moderate
Frequency Marital Status Moderate Low Serious Low Low Moderate
Frequency Occupation Moderate Low Serious Low Low Moderate
Santana, 2011 [40] Outcome Residence Serious Low Unclear Low Low Serious
Smit, 2007 [41]d Outcome Education Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Outcome Residence Moderate Low Low Low Low Moderate
Soto-Salgado, 2012 [34]c Frequency SEP Moderate Low Unclear Low Low Moderate
Outcome SEP Moderate Low Unclear Low Low Moderate
Torres-Cintrón, 2012 [38]c Frequency SEP Moderate Low Unclear Low Low Moderate
Outcome SEP Moderate Low Unclear Low Low Moderate
  1. aThese articles used data from the same Cuban study
  2. bThese articles used data from the same Jamaican study
  3. cThese articles used data from the same Puerto Rican study
  4. dThese articles are each components of larger studies: (Nemesure [33] - Prostate Cancer in a Black Population) [62], (Smit [41] - Puerto Rico Heart Health Program) [63], (McDonald [36] - Tobago Prostate Study) [64]