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Table 1 Characteristics of 13 included articles from the Caribbean describing the social distribution of prostate cancer frequency and outcomes [30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42]

From: Social determinants of prostate cancer in the Caribbean: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study-level characteristics   Inequality relationships reported
Article (n = 13) Study design Sample size Age Study-base Country Measurement tool/source Frequency Outcome Main findings
Bray, 2016 [42] Registry-based / 0–74 Population Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Maritinique, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad & Tobago / / Residence Cumulative mortality risk per country is as follows - Puerto Rico (1.0%), Martinique (1.8%), Suriname (1.9%), Cuba (2.3%), Guadelope (2.7%), Bahamas (3.0%), Haiti (3.1%), Dominican Republic (3.3%), Jamaica (3.8%), Barbados (3.9%), Guyana (4.4%), Trinidad and Tobago (4.9%)
Fernández, 2005 [30, 31]a Case-control 527 < 84 Health-facility Cuba histological/cytological test Education / Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - none (37.7, 32.3%), primary (38.8, 35.8%), technical (17.9, 24.4%), university (5.5, 7.5%). Regression results are as follows - none (ref), primary (OR 0.6, CI 0.4–1.1), technical (OR 1.1, CI 0.7–1.6), university (OR 0.7, CI 0.4–1.3).
Ethnicity Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - white (50.9, 57.5%), black or mixed (49.1, 42.5%). Regression results are as follows - white (ref), black or mixed (OR 1.3, CI 0.9–1.9).
Marital status Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - married (65.9, 63.8%), single (9.9, 15.0%), divorced (11.4, 11.8%), widower (12.8, 9.4%). Regression results are as follows - married (ref), single (OR 1.1, CI 0.6–1.9), divorced (OR 1.4, CI 0.7–2.9), widower (OR 0.7, CI 0.3–1.4).
Occupation Proportions (cases, controls) of Set 1 are as follows - worker (13.2, 25.7%), retired and not working (59.7, 64.2%), retired and working (26.7, 19.7%), unemployed (0.4, 0.4%). Regression results are as follows - workers (ref), retired and not working (OR 1.1, CI 0.7–1.8), retired and working (OR 1.6, CI 0.9–2.9), unemployed (OR 1.1, CI 0.1–18.4). Proportions (cases, controls) of Set 2 are as follows: qualified non-manual worker (15.0, 15%), qualified manual worker (31.5, 33.1%), administrative assistant (13.9, 11.8%), administrative worker (16.1, 16.1%), foreman (4.0, 6.7%), teacher (0.4, 0.8%), craftsman (2.2, 0.8%), shop keeper (6.6, 6.7%), professional (5.5, 7.5%), agricultural worker (4.8, 1.6%).
Fernández, 2005 [30, 31]a Case-control 527 < 84 Health-facility Cuba histological/cytological test Education / Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - none (37.7, 32.3%), primary (38.8, 35.8%), technical (17.9, 24.4%), university (5.5, 7.5%).
Ethnicity Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - white (52.2, 57.9%), black (24.1, 20.2%), mixed (23.7, 21.8%).
Marital status Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - married (65.9, 63.8%), single (9.9, 15.0%), divorced (11.4, 11.8%), widower (12.8, 9.4%).
Jackson, 2012 [35]b Case-control 435 40 to 80 Health-facility Jamaica histological test Education / Proportions are as follows (all cases, high grade cases, low grade cases, controls) - primary or less (89.5, 83.8, 93.3, 79.9%), secondary (5.8, 8.0, 3.8, 14.6%), tertiary (4.7, 7.5, 2.9, 5.4%).
Jackson, 2013 [32]b Case-control 402 40 to 80 Health-facility Jamaica histological test Education / Proportions are as follows (all cases, high grade cases, low grade cases, controls) - primary or less (89.5, 83.8, 93.3, 79.9%), secondary (5.8, 8.0, 3.8, 14.6%), tertiary (4.7, 7.5, 2.9, 5.4%).
Jackson, 2015 [39]b Case-control 472 41 to 80 Health-facility Jamaica histological test Education / Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - primary or less (90.3, 80.8%), secondary or higher (9.7, 19.2%). p = 0.003
McDonald, 2011 [36]d Case-cohort 511 40 to 81 Region/community Trinidad &Tobago fine needle aspiration biopsy Education / Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - ≤11 years (80.2, 77.0%), > 11 years (19.8,% 23.0). p = 0.83.
Marital status Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - ever married (85.4, 81.0%), never married (14.6, 19.0%). p = 0.48.
Multigner, 2010 [37] Case-control 1294 adults Population Guadeloupe histopathological test Education / Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - high school and higher (13.3, 10.7%), secondary (25.4, 31.9%), primary (61.4, 57.4%). p = 0.03.
Nemesure, 2013 [33]d Case-control 1271 adults Population Barbados histological test Education / Means and standard deviations of total years of education are as follows - cases (11.9+/−3.9), controls (11.6+/−3.3). p = 0.21.
Marital status Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - single or never married (15.4, 22.3%), married or living together (61.0, 52.0%), separated or divorced (10.0, 14.0%), widowed (8.6, 7.3%). p = 0.001.
Occupation Proportions (cases, controls) are as follows - professional/administration/management (25.9, 22.5%). p = 0.15.
Santana, 2011 [40] Cross-sectional NR adults Population Cuba Mortality Statistics Department of the Provincial Health Directorate Santiago de Cuba and the State Committee for Statistics (census) / Residence The number of deaths and crude mortality rates (per 100,000) of prostate cancer are as follows - Contramaestre (21, 39.2), Mella (12, 66.2), San Luis (27, 59.3), II Frente (11, 52.9), Songo-La Maya (41, 85.8), Santiago (128, 53.0), Palma (31, 50.3), III Frente (4, 25.2), Guamá (10, 54.5)
Smit, 2007 [41]d Prospective cohort 9824 35 to 79 Population Puerto Rico Puerto Rico cancer registry and Puerto Rico biostatistics registry / Education Proportions for prostate cancer death cases and non-prostate cancer death cases are as follows - no formal schooling (9.6, 10.1%), grades 1–4 (30.5, 35.3%), grades 5–8 (34.7, 28.7%), attended/completed high school (13.2, 17.7%), more than high school (12.0, 8.2%). p = 0.09.
Residence Proportions for prostate cancer death cases and non-prostate cancer death cases are as follows - urban (28.1, 30.5%), rural (71.9, 69.5%). p = 0.52.
Soto-Salgado, 2012 [34]c Registry-based NR 45+ Population Puerto Rico Puerto Rico central cancer registry and surveillence, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) programme of the national cancer institute SEPI e SEP e Age-specific incidence per 100,000 is as follows - SEP1 (334.0), SEP2 (322.8), SEP3 (305.8), SEP4 (336.2), SEP5 (396.5). Ratio and CI of SEP5/SEP1 is 1.12, 1.04–1.21. Age-specific mortality per 100,000 is as follows - SEP1 (102.7), SEP2 (84.7), SEP3 (79.6), SEP4 (85.1), SEP5 (89.4). Ratio and CI of SEP5/SEP1 is 0.88, 0.07–1.02. Refer to article for age-specific rates.
Torres-Cintrón, 2012 [38]c Registry-based NR 45+ Population Puerto Rico Puerto Rico Central Cancer Registry (PRCCR) and Puerto Rico Department of Health SEPI e SEP e Age-specific incidence per 100,000 is as follows - SEP1 (334.0), SEP2 (322.8), SEP3 (305.8), SEP4 (336.2), SEP5 (396.5). Ratio and CI of SEP5/SEP1 is 1.12, 1.04–1.21. Age-specific mortality per 100,000 is as follows - SEP1 (102.7), SEP2 (84.7), SEP3 (79.6), SEP4 (85.1), SEP5 (89.4). Ratio and CI of SEP5/SEP1 is 0.88, 0.07–1.02. Refer to article for age-specific rates.
  1. aThese articles used data from the same Cuban study
  2. bThese articles used data from the same Jamaican study
  3. cThese articles used data from the same Puerto Rican study
  4. dThese articles are each components of larger studies: (Nemesure [33] - Prostate Cancer in a Black Population) [62], (Smit [41] - Puerto Rico Heart Health Program) [63], (McDonald [36] - Tobago Prostate Study) [64]
  5. eArticle authors defined SEP by 8 area-level socioeconomic indicators from the national census: unemployment rate, median annual household income, percentage of the population living below the poverty level, percentage of the population > aged 25 years with < 12 years of education, percentage of occupied housing units without a car, percentage of employed population aged > 16 years in white-collar occupations, percentage of occupied housing units without a telephone, and percentage of population fluent in both English and Spanish
  6. / - Not reported
  7. I (in ‘Frequency’ column) - These studies examine prostate cancer frequency as incidence, rather than number of cases