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Table 4 Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression of a woman giving birth in a health facility by predictor variables for 29 sub-Saharan African countries

From: Health facility delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: successes, challenges, and implications for the 2030 development agenda

Determinants Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Model 0 (Empty Model) Model 1 Adjusted OR (95% CI)a
Fixed effects    
Household characteristics    
 Wealth quintile    
   Lowest Ref   Ref
   Second 1.25 (1.23–1.27)***   1.18 (1.15–1.20)***
   Third 1.48 (1.45–1.50)***   1.29 (1.27–1.32)***
   Fourth 1.86 (1.83–1.90)***   1.43 (1.40–1.47)***
   Highest 2.84 (2.78–2.89)***   1.68 (1.63–1.72)***
Residence    
  Rural Ref   Ref
   Urban 2.66 (2.61–2.70)***   2.02 (1.97–2.06)***
Woman characteristics    
  Mother’s education    
   None Ref   Ref
   At least primary 2.46 (2.43–2.49)***   1.84 (1.82–1.88)***
Community characteristics    
Community women’s education    
   Low Ref   Ref
   Medium 1.16 (1.12–1.20)***   1.08 (1.04–1.11)***
   High 1.33 (1.29–1.38)***   1.11 (1.08–1.15)***
Pregnancy characteristics    
  Number of ANC visits    
   None Ref   Ref
   At least once 25.78 (25.44–26.13)***   23.71 (23.38–24.04)***
 Mother’s age at birth    
< 20 Ref   Ref
   20–24 1.29 (1.27–1.31)***   1.35 (1.33–1.38)***
   25–29 1.70 (1.67–1.72)***   1.74 (1.70–1.78)***
   30+ 2.70 (2.67–2.74)***   2.37 (2.31–2.44)***
Child-specific characteristics    
  Birth order    
   1 Ref   Ref
   2–3 1.09 (1.08–1.10)***   0.75 (0.73–0.76)***
   4+ 1.47 (1.45–1.48)***   0.62 (0.60–0.63)***
Survey characteristics    
 Survey round    
   Earliest Ref   Ref
   Latest 1.60 (1.58–1.62)***   1.85 (1.81–1.88)***
Region    
Western Africa Ref   Ref
Middle Africa 2.04 (1.16–3.57)**   1.54 (0.85–2.82)
Eastern Africa 0.99 (0.66–1.49)   0.78 (0.51–1.21)
Southern Africa 1.56 (0.74–3.27)   1.05 (0.48–2.33)
Random effects    
Country-level    
Variance (SE)   0.557 (0.074)*** 0.529 (0.070)***
Intra-country correlation (SE)   0.072 (0.018) 0.067 (0.016)
Cluster-level    
Variance (SE)   0.836 (0.006) 0.728 (0.006)***
Intra-cluster correlation (SE)   0.235 (0.015) 0.197 (0.014)
LR test vs. logistic model   96,382.99 51,425.27
Prob > Chi2   0.001 0.001
  1. Notes: ANC – Antenatal care; CI – confidence interval; ***p < 0.001; SE – Standard error; **p < 0.05; Ref – Reference category; OR – odds ratio
  2. aOdds ratios were calculated using unadjusted and adjusted multivariate analysis. A total of 1,159,282 births were included in the analysis