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Table 4 Cyberbullying in relation to sociodemographic and other factors in Germany, the Netherlands and Iceland separately: crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR from multiple logistic regression analyses, with 95% confidence intervals

From: Cross-national aspects of cyberbullying victimization among 14–17-year-old adolescents across seven European countries

  Germany Netherlands Iceland
  OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR P OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR P OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR P
Gender
 Females 1b 1b   1b 1b   1b 1b  
 Males 0.96
(0.76–1.21)
1.03a
(0.80–1.33)
0.82 0.53
(0.39–0.73)
0.50
(0.30–0.83)
0.008 0.63
(0.51–0.79)
0.75
(0.5–1.12)
0.16
Age (years)
 14–15.9 1 1   1 1   1 1  
 16–17.9 1.00
(0.82–1.22)
1.04
(0.81–1.34)
0.74 0.91
(0.68–1.21)
0.85
(0.54–1.33)
0.47 1.12
(0.79–1.59)
0.99
(0.58–1.66)
0.96
Parental educational level
 Low/middle 1 1   1 1   1 1  
 High 0.97
(0.78–1.21)
0.95
(0.72–1.25)
0.70 0.93
(0.58–1.48)
1.21
(0.69–2.13)
0.51 0.96
(0.63–1.46)
1.59
(1.00–2.51)
0.048
Parental family status
 Married/ living together 1 1   1 1   1 1  
 Other 1.32
(1.06–1.65)
1.26
(0.96–1.66)
0.10 1.43
(0.95–2.18)
1
(0.61–1.64)
0.99 1.54
(1.09–2.16)
1.25
(0.86–1.83)
0.25
Age at first Internet use 1.00
(0.96–1.05)
0.97
(0.91–1.03)
0.32 0.97
(0.89–1.05)
0.93
(0.83–1.05)
0.25 0.97
(0.91–1.04)
0.98
(0.90–1.07)
0.61
Daily use of SNS
 None/<  2 h 1 1   1 1   1 1  
  ≥ 2 h 1.70
(1.38–2.08)
1.66
(1.18–2.34)
0.004 1.63
(1.19–2.24)
1.15
(0.68–1.95)
0.61 2.38
(1.77–3.21)
1.37
(0.89–2.13)
0.16
Daily Internet use
 None/<  2 h 1 1   1 1   1 1  
  ≥ 2 h 1.46
(1.16–1.83)
0.91
(0.64–1.29)
0.60 1.62
(1.14–2.30)
1.23
(0.71–2.12)
0.46 2.18
(1.56–3.06)
1.46
(0.91–2.34)
0.11
Parents allow me to visit every site
 Never/ seldom 1 1   1 1   1 1  
 Sometimes 0.60
(0.38–0.95)
0.52
(0.26–1.04)
0.06 1.22
(0.46–3.25)
0.79
(0.20–3.10)
0.73 1.18
(0.68–2.04)
1.25
(0.61–2.56)
0.55
 Often/ yery often/parents don’t know 0.72
(0.49–1.06)
0.61
(0.36–1.04)
0.07 1.15
(0.59–2.24)
1.05
(0.38–2.84)
0.93 1.09
(0.74–1.61)
0.76
(0.42–1.37)
0.36
Parents limit time on Internet
 Never/ seldom 1 1   1 1   1 1  
 Sometimes 1.03
(0.78–1.37)
1.21
(0.88–1.66)
0.24 1.06
(0.70–1.59)
0.80
(0.42–1.5)
0.48 1.06
(0.72–1.57)
1.28
(0.86–1.92)
0.23
 Often/ Very often 1.39
(1.06–1.82)
1.37
(0.96–1.96)
0.08 1.88
(1.14–3.09)
1.66
(0.86–3.21)
0.13 1.15
(0.77–1.70)
1.13
(0.69–1.85)
0.64
Internalizing Problems -c -c   1.07
(1.05–1.10)
1.04
(1.01–1.07)
0.004 1.08
(1.07–1.10)
1.05
(1.02–1.07)
< 0.001
Externalizing Problems -c -c   1.05
(1.03–1.07)
1.03
(1–1.06)
0.028 1.10
(1.08–1.12)
1.07
(1.05–1.10)
< 0.001
  1. aOdds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) adjusted for all other variables listed
  2. bindicates reference category
  3. cThe YSR was not administered in Germany