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Table 3 Cyberbullying in relation to sociodemographic and other factors in Greece, Spain, Romania and Poland separately: crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR from multiple logistic regression analyses, with 95% confidence intervals

From: Cross-national aspects of cyberbullying victimization among 14–17-year-old adolescents across seven European countries

   Greece    Spain    Romania    Poland  
  OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR P OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR P OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR P OR
95% CI
Adjusted OR P
Gender
 Females 1b 1b   1b 1b   1b 1b   1b 1b  
 Males 0.80
(0.64–0.99)
0.79a
(0.62-1.03)
0.08 0.65
(0.46–0.90)
0.79
(0.57–1.11)
0.18 0.85
(0.67–1.06)
1.06
(0.73–1.53)
0.77 0.79
(0.63–0.98)
1.09
(0.79–1.49)
0.61
Age (years)
 14–15.9 1 1   1 1   1 1   1 1  
 16–17.9 1.08
(0.86–1.35)
1.08
(0.84–1.4)
0.55 1.20
(0.91–1.58)
1.26
(0.91–1.74)
0.16 0.74
(0.57–0.96)
0.52
(0.35–0.75)
0.001 1.11
(0.87–1.43)
1.05
(0.75–1.46)
0.78
Parental educational level
 Low/Middle 1 1   1 1   1 1   1 1  
 High 0.81
(0.67–0.99)
0.94
(0.74–1.2)
0.64 0.94
(0.68–1.31)
1.15
(0.83–1.6)
0.39 1.00
(0.79–1.26)
1.14
(0.80–1.62)
0.47 1.20
(0.93–1.55)
1.10
(0.82–1.49)
0.52
Parental family status
 Married/ living together 1 1   1 1   1 1   1 1  
 Other 1.62
(1.27–2.07)
1.36
(0.98–1.87)
0.063 1.48
(1.06–2.08)
1.33
(0.9–1.97)
0.16 1.25
(0.97–1.59)
1.06
(0.67–1.70)
0.80 1.13
(0.86–1.49)
1.00
(0.68–1.47)
0.99
Age at first Internet use 0.97
(0.92–1.01)
0.99
(0.93–1.05)
0.77 0.99
(0.92–1.06)
0.99
(0.92–1.07)
0.79 0.96
(0.92–1.00)
1.07
(0.99–1.17)
0.08 0.97
(0.91–1.02)
1.04
(0.96–1.12)
0.39
Daily use of SNS
 No use/<  2 h 1 1   1 1   1 1   1 1  
  ≥ 2 h 2.33
(1.87–2.89)
1.34
(0.94–1.91)
0.10 1.81
(1.35–2.43)
0.96
(0.60–1.52)
0.86 2.16
(1.71–2.73)
1.83
(1.21–2.76)
0.004 1.67
(1.32–2.12)
1.53
(1.05–2.24)
0.028
Daily Internet use
 No use/<  2 h 1 1   1 1   1 1   1 1  
  ≥ 2 h 1.94
(1.55–2.43)
1.34
(0.95–1.90)
0.10 1.79
(1.36–2.34)
1.34
(0.85–2.10)
0.21 1.84
(1.45–2.33)
1.57
(1.02–2.42)
0.041 1.31
(1.06–1.62)
0.98
(0.69–1.41)
0.93
Parents allow me to visit every site
 Never/ seldom 1 1   1 1   1 1   1 1  
 Sometimes 0.97
(0.67–1.41)
1.16
(0.75–1.77)
0.51 0.66
(0.38–1.16)
0.89
(0.45–1.76)
0.75 1.49
(0.88–2.51)
1.28
(0.73–2.22)
0.39 0.89
(0.50–1.58)
0.85
(0.37–1.96)
0.71
 Often/ very often/ parents don’t know 1.11
(0.84–1.45)
1.08
(0.74–1.56)
0.70 0.95
(0.61–1.50)
1.05
(0.62–1.76)
0.87 1.68
(1.07–2.63)
1.29
(0.75–2.21)
0.36 1.50
(0.94–2.38)
1.27
(0.69–2.33)
0.44
Parents limit time on Internet
 Never/ seldom 1 1   1 1   1 1   1 1  
 Sometimes 1.14
(0.97–1.51)
1.17
(0.87–1.58)
0.31 0.98
(0.67–1.43)
1.13
(0.75–1.70)
0.56 1.14
(0.90–1.45)
1.11
(0.74–1.64)
0.62 1.24
(0.94–1.66)
1.49
(1.06–2.10)
0.022
 Often/ very often 1.15
(0.90–1.47)
1.2
(0.91–1.59)
0.19 1.10
(0.80–1.51)
1.18
(0.81–1.73)
0.39 1.49
(1.13–1.96)
1.32
(0.81–2.16)
0.27 1.49
(1.09–2.02)
1.63
(1.08–2.47)
0.021
Internalizing Problems 1.06
(1.05–1.07)
1.04
(1.02–1.05)
< 0.001 1.08
(1.06–1.10)
1.06
(1.04–1.08)
<
0.001
1.07
(1.05–1.09)
1.05
(1.02–1.08)
0.004 1.05
(1.04–1.07)
1.03
(1.01–1.05)
0.005
Externalizing Problems 1.06
(1.04–1.07)
1.04
(1.02–1.05)
< 0.001 1.06
(1.04–1.09)
1.04
(1.02–1.06)
<
0.001
1.06
(1.04–1.07)
1.02
(1.00–1.05)
0.06 1.07
(1.05–1.08)
1.05
(1.02–1.07)
< 0.001
  1. aOdds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) adjusted for all other variables listed
  2. bindicates reference category