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Table 2 Prevalence (with 95% confidence interval) of ever having been the victim of cyberbullying in relation to sociodemographic and internet use factors, separately in each country

From: Cross-national aspects of cyberbullying victimization among 14–17-year-old adolescents across seven European countries

  Greece Spain Romania Poland Germany Netherlands Iceland
Gender
 Females 28.9% (284/982)a
26.1–31.9
15.7% (153/977)
12.9–18.9
39.0% (358/917)
35.6–42.6
23.4% (228/973)
20.6–26.7
24.7% (295/1196)
21.9–27.7
19.4% (116/597)
16.2–23.1
16.0% (151/944)
13.7–18.6
 Males 24.6% (224/912)
21.8–27.6
10.7% (96/896)
8.5–13.4
35.1% (244/695)
31.0–39.5
19.4% (170/876)
16.5–22.6
23.9% (235/982)
21.0–27.1
11.4% (66/579)
9.1–14.1
10.8% (91/846)
8.8–13.1
Age (years)
 14–15.9 26.4% (351/1330)
24.0–29..0
12.6% (154/1226)
10.5–14.9
42.6% (179/420)
37.2–48.2
21.1% (288/1368)
18.4–23.9
24.3% (304/1249)
21.6–27.2
16.3% (74/455)
13.3–19.7
13.4% (211/1579)
11.5–15.5
 16–17.9 27.8% (157/564)
24.4–31.5
14.7% (95/647)
11.8–18.1
35.5% (423/1192)
32.4–38.7
22.9% (110/481)
19.0–27.3
24.3% (226/929)
21.7–27.2
15.0% (108/721)
12.3–18.1
14.7% (31/211)
10.7–19.9
Parental educational level
 Low/Middle 29.1% (229/787)
26.1–32.3
13.8% (93/672)
10.9–17.4
38.7% (273/705)
34.2–43.5
20.4% (147/721)
17.2–24.0
25.0% (133/532)
21.5–28.8
15.6% (27/173)
11.2–21.4
14.1% (44/313)
9.9–19.5
 High 25.0% (249/997)
22.4–27.7
13.1% (132/1005)
10.9–15.8
38.7% (276/714)
35.4–42.0
23.5% (170/722)
20.1–27.4
24.4% (303/1242)
21.9–27.1
14.7% (106/722)
11.9–18.0
13.6% (163/1201)
11.6–15.8
Parental family status
 Married/ living together 25.5% (409/1602)
23.5–27.6
12.4% (195/1570)
10.5–14.6
36.5% (491/1345)
33.8–39.3
21.0% (309/1470)
18.4–23.9
22.8% (350/1537)
20.4–25.3
14.2% (121/853)
11.8–17.0
12.1% (156/1285)
10.2–14.5
 Divorced/ separated/ Single- parent family 35.7% (94/263)
30.7–41.1
17.4% (50/288)
13.2–22.5
41.7% (101/242)
35.6–48.2
23.2% (76/328)
18.9–28.1
28.0% (148/528)
24.5–31.9
19.2% (55/287)
14.3–25.2
17.5% (81/463)
13.9–21.8
Daily use of SNS
 No use/<  2 h 20.9% (252/1203)
18.7–23.4
10.5% (120/1140)
8.5–12.9
30.0% (273/910)
26.1–34.2
18.9% (239/1264)
16.2–21.9
20.0% (235/1173)
17.7–22.6
13.0% (86/664)
10.7–15.6
9.6% (102/1057)
7.7–12.0
  ≥ 2 h 38.1% (243/637)
34.7–41.7
17.5% (116/661)
14.6–21.0
48.1% (289/601)
44.5–51.7
28.0% (143/510)
24.3–32.1
29.8% (249/835)
26.7–33.1
19.5% (78/400)
15.9–23.7
20.3% (123/606)
17.1–23.9
Daily Internet use
 No use/<  2 h 21.4% (234/1095)
18.9–24.1
10.6% (118/1112)
8.5–13.2
29.9% (217/726)
25.8–34.3
19.1% (164/858)
16.2–22.5
20.6% (209/1015)
17.8–23.7
12.0% (55/458)
9.4–15.3
8.3% (59/707)
6.3–10.9
  ≥ 2 h 34.5% (261/756)
31.2–38.0
17.5% (126/720)
14.9–20.4
44.0% (356/810)
40.7–47.3
23.7% (218/921)
20.7–27.0
27.4% (287/1046)
24.7–30.4
18.1% (118/652)
15.0–21.7
16.6% (164/989)
13.9–19.6
Parents allow me to visit every site
 Never/ seldom 25.7% (69/268)
21.2–30.8
14.4% (28/195)
9.7–20.8
24.2% (39/161)
17.1–33.1
16.3% (25/153)
11.0–23.6
30.7% (39/127)
23.2–39.4
13.7% (10/73)
7.4–24.1
12.4% (26/209)
8.7–17.4
 Sometimes 25.2% (85/337)
20.0–31.0
10.0% (22/221)
6.5–15.0
32.2% (75/233)
26.1–38.9
14.8% (20/135)
9.6–22.1
21.0% (34/162)
15.7–27.5
16.2% (11/68)
9.1–27.1
14.4% (28/195)
10.2–19.8
 Often/ very often/ parents don’t know 27.7% (352/1271)
25.3–30.2
13.7% (199/1449)
11.8–15.9
34.9% (155/444)
30.8–39.3
22.6% (351/1553)
20.1–25.4
24.2% (444/1835)
22.1–26.4
15.4% (156/1010)
13.1–18.1
13.4% (183/1366)
11.4–15.7
Parents restrict time on Internet
 Never/ seldom 25.3% (180/712)
22.0–28.8
13.0% (78/601)
10.3–16.2
35.4% (344/971)
32.3–38.7
19.5% (208/1069)
16.6–22.6
23.3% (332/1424)
20.8–26.0
14.5% (122/843)
12.1–17.3
13.0% (134/1032)
10.4–16.0
 Sometimes 27.9% (138/495)
23.9–32.3
12.7% (67/526)
9.6–16.8
38.5% (160/416)
33.5–43.6
23.1% (110/476)
19.2–27.5
23.8% (103/432)
19.7–28.6
15.2% (32/211)
11.0–20.5
13.7% (65/475)
10.4–17.8
 Often/ very often 28.0% (188/672)
24.7–31.5
14.1% (104/740)
11.5–17.0
45.0% (98/218)
38.6–51.5
26.4% (78/295)
21.2–32.5
29.7% (92/310)
25.0–34.8
24.1% (27/112)
16.5–33.9
14.6% (40/274)
11.3–18.7
  1. aIn parentheses, number bullied / sample size