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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis (n = 15)

From: Impact of public smoking bans on children’s exposure to tobacco smoke at home: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author Location Study design Data collection Age of children (years) Exposure Measurement of exposure prevalence used for meta-analysis Main results
Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law
 Kabir et al. (2010) [25] Ireland
Legislation: 2004
Repeated cross-sectional,
N = app. 10,640 children
ISAAC (1995, 1998, 2002, 2003, 2007)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 3 years
13–14 Parental smoking at home.
Measurement: Q
Reported prevalence’s for exposure in each survey year Q: SHS exposure at home remained unchanged.
 Sims et al. (2012) [26] England
Legislation: 2007
Repeated cross-sectional,
N = 23,680 children
HSE (1996, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
4–15 Parental smoking at home.
Measurement: Q, CL (more than 1.7 ng/ml)
Reported proportions of household smoking status Q and CL:SHS exposure at home decreased. (CL more than 1.7 ng/ml)
 Huang et al. (2012) [27] Southern Taiwan
Legislation: 2009
Cross-sectional,
N = 4450 children
Control of School-aged Children Smoking Study Survey (2008,2009)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after few months
8–13 Smoking children, family members or visitors at home.
Measurement: Q
Reported changes in proportions of household SHS exposure (summed up for men and women and None, 1–3 or 4+ days/ week) Q: SHS exposure at home remained unchanged.
 Fernández et al. (2015) [28] Spain
Legislation: 2011
Prospective cohort study,
N = 118 boys and their parents
INMA-Network (2005–2006, 2011–2012)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
4–5 Parents (mother, father, both) smoking at home.
Measurement: Q, CL
Reported proportions of exposure to SHS at home (yes, at least one smoker) Q and CL: SHS exposure at home increased.
 Ho et al. (2010) [10] Hong Kong
Legislation: 2007
Cross-sectional,
N_06 = 3243
N_08 = 4965 children
Data from randomly selected schools (2006, 2008)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
7–10 Parental smoking at home.
Measurement: Q, HNC
Reported prevalences of SHS exposure based on HNC (summarized: None, 1–3, 4–7, any days exposed) Q with HNC: SHS exposure at home increased.
 Chan et al. (2014) [29] Hong Kong
Legislation: 2007
Cross-sectional, (RCT),
N_(05–06) = 333
N (07–08) = 742
Data from the maternal/child/Student Health Centers (2005–2006, 2007–2008)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
0–6 Smoking father at home.
Measurement: Q, HNC
Reported proportions of children’s exposure by smoking father reported by mother Q and HNC: SHS exposure at home decreased.
 Jarvis et al. (2012) [30] England
Legislation: 2007
Repeated cross-sectional,
N = 10,825 children
HSE (1998, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
4–15 Smoking parents or any other people at home.
Measurement: I, CL
Reported proportions of children with smoking parents. I and CL: SHS exposure at home decreased slightly.
 Bolte et al. (2015) [31] Germany (Bavaria),
Legislation: 2008
Repeated cross-sectional,
N = 17,892 parents with their children
Health monitoring units (GME) (2004–2005, 2005–2006, 2008–2009), Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year 5–6 Smoking parents at home, in cars.
Measurement: I
Reported prevalences of SHS exposure at home I: SHS exposure at home decreased slightly.
 Holliday et al. (2009) [32] Wales,
Legislation: 2007
Repeated cross-sectional,
N = 3216 children
CHETS (2007,2008)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
10–11 Parents or any other people smoking at home.
Measurement: Q, CL
Reported prevalences of SHS exposure at home Q and CL: SHS exposure at home remained unchanged.
 Jarvis et al. (2015) [33] England
Legislation: 2007
Repeated cross-sectional,
N = 13,327 children
HSE (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011,2012)
Follow-up period: 5 measurements during 5 years
0–15 Parents or any other people smoking at home.
Measurement: I, CL
Reported percentages of children with smoking parents. I and CL: SHS exposure at home decreased.
 Akhtar et al. (2007) [34] Scotland
Legislation: 2006
Repeated cross-sectional,
N = 4676 children
CHETS (2006,2007)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
10–11 Parents or any other people smoking at home.
Measurement: Q, CL
Reported prevalence of SHS exposure at home Q: SHS exposure at home remained unchanged.
CL: Proportion of pupils with higher cotinine remained unchanged, mean cotinine concentration fell by 39%
Mixed Smoke-Free Law
 Sinha et al. (2008) [35] India
Legislation: 2005
Cross-sectional,
N_1 = 68,077
N_2 = 12,086 children
GYTS (2003,2006)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
13–15 Smoking parents or other smoking people at home.
Measurement: Q
Reported exposure prevalences in the week prior to the survey, for each survey year Q: SHS exposure at home decreased after legislation.
 Hawkins et al. (2012) [36] USA
Legislation: NA
Repeated cross-sectional
N_1 = 67,607,
N_2 = 62,768 families
NSCH (2003,2007)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
6–17 Smoking parents at home.
Measurement: Q
Reported prevalences of household tobacco use (yes/no) for each survey (only in the text) Q: SHS exposure at home decreased slightly.
 Yao et al. (2016) [37] USA
Legislation: NA
Repeated cross-sectional
N_1 = 18,731 children,
44,049 nonsmoking adults
National Health Survey Cancer Control Supplements (2000,2010)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
0–17 Smoking parents or other smoking people at home.
Measurement: Q
Reported prevalence of SHS exposure at home Q: SHS exposure at home decreased.
 Kuntz et al. (2016) [38] Germany
Legislation: 2008
Cross-sectional,
N_1 = 6680
N_2 = 4455 children
KiGGS (2003–2006, 2009–2012)
Follow-up period: 1 measurement after approx. 1 year
0–6 Smoking parents or other smoking people at home.
Measurement: Q
Reported prevalence of domestic exposure Q: SHS exposure at home decreased.
  1. Abbreviations: ISAAC International study of asthma and allergies in childhood, CHETS Child exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, INMA Environmental and childhood research network, HSE Health survey for England, GYTS Global youth tobacco survey, NSCH National Survey of children’ health, KiGGS German health interview and examination survey for children and adolescents, Q Questionnaire, I Interview, CL Cotinine level (urine, saliva), HNC Hair nicotine concentration, NA Not applicable