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Table 1 Characteristics of the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study sample in (2004–6 and 2009–11)

From: Longitudinal associations between TV viewing and BMI not explained by the ‘mindless eating’ or ‘physical activity displacement’ hypotheses among adults

Characteristics All Men Women
CDAH-1
(n = 1068)
CDAH-2
(n = 1068)
pa CDAH-1
(n = 384)
CDAH-2
(n = 384)
pa CDAH-1
(n = 684)
CDAH-2
(n = 684)
pa
Potential Confounders
 Age (years), M (SD) 31.5 (2.6) 36.4 (2.6) < 0.001 31.7 (2.6) 36.7 (2.5) < 0.001 31.4 (2.6) 36.3 (2.6) < 0.001
Education, n (%)
 University 555 (52.0) 579 (54.2)   189 (49.2) 198 (51.6)   366 (53.5) 381 (55.7)  
 Vocational/diploma/trade 268 (25.1) 292 (27.3)   116 (30.2) 128 (33.3)   152 (22.2) 164 (24.0)  
 School only 245 (22.9) 197 (18.5) 0.001 79 (20.6) 58 (15.1) < 0.001 166 (24.3) 139 (20.3) < 0.001
Occupation, n (%)
 Manager or professional 608 (56.9) 628 (58.8)   258 (67.2) 275 (71.6)   350 (51.2) 353 (51.6)  
 White collar 204 (19.1) 198 (18.5)   29 (7.6) 27 (7.0)   175 (25.6) 171 (25.0)  
 Blue collar 109 (10.2) 100 (09.4)   85 (22.1) 71 (18.5)   24 (3.5) 29 (4.2)  
 Not in labour force 147 (13.8) 142 (13.3) 0.37 12 (3.1) 11 (2.9) 0.03 135 (19.7) 131 (19.2) 0.18
Marital status, n (%)
 Single 254 (23.8) 154 (14.4)   112 (29.2) 54 (14.1)   142 (20.8) 100 (14.6)  
 Married or living as married 782 (73.2) 872 (81.7)   265 (69.0) 320 (83.3)   517 (75.6) 552 (80.7)  
 Separated or divorced 31 (2.9) 42 (3.9) < 0.001 7 (1.8) 10 (2.6) < 0.001 24 (3.5) 32 (4.7) < 0.001
Number of childrenb, n (%)
 0 324 (47.4) 308 (28.8)   126 (32.8)   324 (47.4) 182 (26.6)  
 1 137 (20.0) 184 (17.2)   72 (18.8)   137 (20.0) 112 (16.4)  
 2 160 (23.4) 375 (35.1)   133 (34.6)   160 (23.4) 242 (35.4)  
  ≥ 3 63 (9.2) 201 (18.8) 53 (13.8)   63 (9.2) 148 (21.6) < 0.001
Employment status, n (%)
 Full-time 686 (64.2) 588 (55.1)   350 (91.2) 354 (92.2)   336 (49.1) 234 (34.2)  
 Part-time 197 (18.5) 313 (29.3)   20 (5.2) 13 (3.4)   177 (25.9) 300 (43.9)  
 Other 185 (17.3) 167 (15.6) < 0.001 14 (3.7) 17 (4.4) 0.14 171 (25.0) 150 (21.9) < 0.001
Smoking status, n (%)
 Non-smoker 867 (81.2) 925 (86.6)   307 (80.0) 327 (85.2)   560 (81.9) 598 (87.4)  
 Smoker 201 (18.8) 143 (13.4) < 0.001 77 (20.1) 57 (14.8) 0.14 124 (18.1) 86 (12.6) < 0.001
Outcome Variables
 BMI (kg/m2), M(SD) 25.2 (4.9) 25.9 (5.2) < 0.001 26.1 (4.2) 26.7 (4.6) < 0.001 24.7 (5.2) 25.4 (5.5) < 0.001
Weight status, n (%)
 Healthy weight 598 (56.0) 538 (50.4)   167 (43.5) 143 (37.2)   431 (63.0) 395 (57.8)  
 Overweight 327 (30.6) 347 (32.5)   159 (41.4) 173 (45.1)   168 (24.6) 174 (25.4)  
 Obese 143 (13.4) 183 (17.1) < 0.001 58 (15.1) 68 (17.7) < 0.001 85 (12.4) 115 (16.8) < 0.001
Exposure Variable
 TV (hrs/day), Med (IQR) 1.7 (1.7) 1.6 (1.6) 0.77 2.0 (1.8) 2.0 (1.7) 0.58 2.0 (1.8) 1.6 (1.4) 0.35
Explanatory Variables
 LTPA (mins/wk), Med  (IQR) 101 (240) 120 (220) 0.96 120 (239) 101 (240) 0.23 100 (195) 120 (210) 0.30
Total TV-related FBCc, n (%)
 Low 183 (17.1) 231 (21.6)   43 (11.2) 231 (21.6)   140 (20.5) 164 (24.0)  
 Medium 284 (26.6) 313 (29.3)   100 (26.0) 313 (29.3)   184 (26.9) 204 (29.8)  
 High 601 (56.3) 524 (49.1) < 0.001 241 (62.8) 524 (49.1) 0.001 360 (52.6) 316 (46.2) 0.002
TV-related meals, n (%)
 0 times/wk 129 (12.1) 194 (18.2)   34 (8.9) 194 (18.2)   95 (13.9) 130 (19.0)  
 1–2 times/wk 228 (21.4) 268 (25.1)   73 (19.0) 268 (25.1)   155 (22.7) 178 (26.0)  
 3–4 times/wk 239 (22.4) 215 (20.1)   80 (20.8) 215 (20.1)   159 (23.3) 137 (20.0)  
  ≥ 5 times/wk 472 (44.2) 391 (36.6) < 0.001 197 (51.3) 391 (36.6) < 0.001 275 (40.2) 239 (34.9) < 0.001
TV-related snacks, n (%)
 0 times/wk 113 (10.6) 127 (11.9)   32 (8.3) 127 (11.9)   81 (11.8) 85 (12.4)  
 1–2 times/wk 385 (36.1) 378 (35.4)   126 (32.8) 378 (35.4)   259 (37.9) 258 (37.7)  
 3–4 times/wk 322 (30.2) 330 (30.9)   124 (32.3) 330 (30.9)   198 (29.0) 205 (30.0)  
  ≥ 5 times/wk 248 (23.2) 233 (21.8) 0.69 102 (26.6) 233 (21.8) 0.47 146 (21.4) 136 (19.9) 0.97
TV-related soft drinks, n (%)
 0 times/wk 515 (48.2) 608 (56.9)   154 (40.1) 608 (56.9)   361 (52.8) 419 (61.3)  
 1–2 times/wk 314 (29.4) 265 (24.8)   125 (32.6) 265 (24.8)   189 (27.6) 160 (23.4)  
 3–4 times/wk 140 (13.1) 119 (11.1)   57 (14.8) 119 (11.1)   83 (12.1) 63 (9.2)  
  ≥ 5 times/wk 99 (9.3) 76 (7.1) < 0.001 48 (12.5) 76 (7.1) 0.001 51 (7.5) 42 (6.1) < 0.001
TV-related alcohol, n (%)
 0 times/wk 472 (44.2) 467 (43.7)   117 (30.5) 467 (43.7)   355 (51.9) 333 (48.7)  
 1–2 times/wk 413 (38.7) 388 (36.3)   165 (43.0) 388 (36.3)   248 (36.3) 245 (35.8)  
 3–4 times/wk 126 (11.8) 149 (14.0)   68 (17.7) 149 (14.0)   58 (8.5) 72 (10.5)  
  ≥ 5 times/wk 57 (5.3) 64 (6.0) 0.41 34 (8.9) 64 (6.0) 0.06 23 (3.4) 34 (5.0) 0.40
  1. aDetermined by Stuart-Maxwell test for categorical variables and paired t-tests for continuous variables for differences between CDAH1 and CDAH2 overall and for men and women
  2. bData on number of children were not collected at CDAH1 among men
  3. cClassified as high (≥5 times/wk. consumes ≥1 item), medium (3–4 times/wk. consumes ≥1 item) or low (≤2 times/wk. consumes all four items)
  4. CDAH1 Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study (2004–06); CDAH2 Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study (2009–10); LTPA leisure-time physical activity, TV television, FBC food and beverage consumption, Med median, IQR inter-quartile range