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Table 2 Bivariate relationship between selected characteristics and stigma and discrimination measures by ethnic group, NDHS, 2013

From: Ethnic heterogeneity in the determinants of HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination among Nigeria women

  Hausa Igbo Yoruba Fulani
  Stigma measures Stigma measures Stigma measures Stigma measures
Characteristics Stereotype (N=6,752) Fear of stigma (N=5,951) Discrimination (N=135) Stereotype (N=2,110) Fear of stigma (N=3,424) Discrimination (N=149) Stereotype (N=2,392) Fear of stigma (N=2,894) Discrimination (N=45) Stereotype (N=1,430) Fear of stigma (N=1,095) Discrimination (N=33)
Age group     *** ***   ** ***    *  
15-24 years 35.5 36.4 35.6 40.5 37.0 36.2 37.3 36.4 40.0 38.0 40.4 42.4
25-34 years 33.6 33.1 39.3 27.6 32.4 31.5 28.6 31.9 24.4 30.7 30.0 42.4
35-44 years 21.0 21.1 14.8 21.3 22.4 24.8 23.5 23.7 20.0 21.7 20.9 15.2
45 years and above 9.9 9.4 1.6 10.6 8.2 7.4 10.6 8.1 15.6 9.6 8.8 0.0
Level of Education ***   * *** ***   *** **   **   ***
No education 77.0 73.6 61.5 7 2.9 4 6.4 4.5 6.7 82.9 78.9 45.5
Primary 11.1 11.7 17 24.7 16.7 18.1 22.9 16.6 11.1 7.1 8.5 30.3
Secondary 10.6 12.8 18.5 59.5 61.6 57.7 59.8 57.2 51.1 8.1 10.2 18.2
Higher 1.3 1.9 3 8.8 18.8 20.1 10.9 21.7 31.1 1.8 2.4 6.1
Place of residence *** ** *   *** * *** ***   *   
Urban 23.4 26.4 37.8 68.4 64.8 78.5 71.6 79.3 82.2 14.3 15.8 24.2
Rural 76.6 73.6 62.2 31.6 35.2 21.5 28.4 20.7 17.8 85.7 84.2 75.8
Religion ***       *** ***     
Christian 0.7 1.3 2.2 99.7 99.6 100 56.7 58.9 53.5 0.3 0.3 0.0
Islam 99.3 98.7 97.8 0.3 0.4 0 43.3 41.1 46.5 99.7 99.7 100
Occupation ***   *** *** ** *** **     
Not working 39.3 41.1 43.7 33.2 38.2 20.3 28.7 29.2 28.9 55 56.7 48.5
Professional/clerical 44.6 43.2 44.4 41 45.2 58.8 56.3 58.3 64.4 30.1 28.7 27.3
Agriculture 0.8 0.8 1.5 19.3 11.3 16.2 4.9 2.5 4.4 2.4 1.7 3
Manual 15.3 14.9 10.4 6.5 5.4 4.7 10.2 10 2.2 12.5 12.9 21.2
Wealth Status ***   *** *** *** ** *** ***   ***   **
Poor 68.4 63.8 43 21.9 10.4 20.1 4.7 2.7 4.4 78.3 74.5 48.5
Middle 15.7 16.8 28.9 26.3 19.5 28.9 17.3 11.8 15.6 9.9 10.8 27.3
Rich 15.9 19.4 28.1 51.8 70.1 51 78 85.5 80 11.9 14.7 24.2
Frequency of exposure to radio *** *** *** *** *** ** *** **   *** ***  
Not at all 44.7 39.5 32.6 21.7 19.8 7.4 10.4 10.4 13.3 55.9 53.6 42.4
Less than once a week 23.2 28.2 41.5 35.0 33.6 36.2 27.4 21.9 20.0 14.6 17.6 24.2
At least once a week 32.1 32.3 25.9 43.4 46.6 56.4 62.2 67.7 66.7 29.5 28.8 33.3
HIV Knowledge *** *** *** *** ***   ***     *  
Poor Knowledge 25.2 22.2 38.5 34.4 21.3 30.9 33.9 29.9 24.4 40.1 36.8 54.6
Good Knowledge 74.8 77.8 61.5 65.6 78.7 69.1 66.1 70.1 75.6 59.9 63.2 45.4
  1. *** statistically significant (p=0.000), **= Statistically significant (p=0.001), *= statistically significant (p<0.05)