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Table 4 Results of the multilevel mediation models between Carstairs (exposure), physical environment variables (mediators), and biomarkers (outcomes)

From: Neighborhood deprivation and biomarkers of health in Britain: the mediating role of the physical environment

  FEV1% (England and Wales only)a SBPb BMIc CRPd
  Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI Estimate 95% CI
Total effects (Carstairs predicting biomarker, no mediators, c path)
 Carstairs (c) −0.617 − 0.706, − 0.528 0.191 0.105, 0.277 0.154 0.124, 0.183 0.060 0.048, 0.073
Direct effects (Carstairs predicting biomarker net of mediators; c’, a1-a7, and b1-b7 paths)
Within
 Age   0.468 0.455, 0.482 0.044 0.039, 0.049 0.015 0.013, 0.018
 Gender   −6.859 −7.315, −6.403 −0.098 −0.238, 0.043 0.292 0.221, 0.362
 Log income 3.990 2.716, 5.264 −1.024 −2.090, 0.041 0.124 −0.230, 0.478 −0.298 − 0.454, − 0.142
Between
 Carstairs (c’) −0.548 − 0.653, − 0.442 0.212 0.112, 0.312 0.182 0.148, 0.215 0.056 0.041, 0.071
 Log income (on Carstairs) −9.143 −10.420, −7.865 − 9.772 − 11.744, − 7.801 −9.761 −11.727, − 7.795 −9.777 −11.752, − 7.801
Carstairs predicting mediators:
 SO2 (a 1 ) 0.181 0.161, 0.201 0.147 0.129, 0.165 0.147 0.129, 0.165 0.147 0.129, 0.165
 PM10 (a 2 ) 0.186 0.169, 0.203 0.127 0.108, 0.146 0.127 0.108, 0.146 0.127 0.108, 0.146
 NO2 (a 3 ) 0.940 0.867, 1.012 0.791 0.717, 0.864 0.791 0.717, 0.864 0.791 0.717, 0.864
 CO (a 4 ) 0.010 0.010, 0.011 0.009 0.009, 0.010 0.009 0.009, 0.010 0.009 0.009, 0.010
 Green space (a 5 ) −4.184 −4.381, −3.986 −3.911 −4.097, − 3.724 −3.911 −4.097, − 3.724 −3.911 −4.097, − 3.724
 Industrial facilities (a 6 ) 0.004 0.002, 0.006 0.004 0.002, 0.005 0.004 0.002, 0.005 0.004 0.002, 0.005
Mediators predicting biomarker:
 SO2 (b 1 ) 0.066 −0.075, 0.208 0.424 0.285, 0.562 0.098 0.056, 0.140 0.023 0.003, 0.043
 PM10 (b 2 ) −0.134 −0.491, 0.223 − 0.661 −0.961, − 0.361 −0.093 − 0.195, 0.009 0.051 0.005, 0.097
 NO2 (b 3 ) −0.012 −0.121, 0.097 0.002 −0.098, 0.101 0.016 −0.018, 0.050 − 0.023 −0.039, − 0.008
 CO (b 4 ) 0.376 −11.969, 12.721 2.783 −7.933, 13.499 −5.089 −8.907, −1.270 1.196 −0.510, 2.901
 Green space (b 5 ) 0.011 −0.005, 0.027 0.007 −0.007, 0.021 0.000 −0.005, 0.004 0.000 −0.002, 0.002
 Industrial facilities (b 6 ) −0.846 −2.199, 0.506 0.707 −0.613, 2.028 0.554 0.117, 0.991 0.173 −0.026, 0.371
Indirect effects (a*b)
Between
 Total Indirect −0.069 −0.132, − 0.007 −0.021 − 0.077, 0.034 −0.028 − 0.047, − 0.009 0.004 −0.004, 0.012
 SO2 (a 1 *b 1 ) 0.012 −0.014, 0.038 0.062 0.041, 0.084 0.014 0.008, 0.021 0.003 0.000, 0.006
 PM10 (a 2 *b 2 ) −0.025 −0.091, 0.042 − 0.084 −0.124, − 0.044 −0.012 − 0.025, 0.001 0.006 0.001, 0.012
 NO2 (a 3 *b 3 ) −0.011 −0.114, 0.091 0.001 −0.077, 0.080 0.013 −0.014, 0.039 − 0.018 −0.031, − 0.006
 CO (a 4 *b 4 ) 0.004 −0.123, 0.131 0.025 −0.072, 0.122 − 0.046 −0.081, − 0.011 0.011 −0.005, 0.026
 Green space (a 5 *b 5 ) −0.045 −0.112, 0.022 − 0.029 −0.084, 0.026 0.001 −0.017, 0.019 0.001 −0.007, 0.009
 Industrial facilities (a 6 *b 6 ) −0.004 −0.010, 0.002 0.002 −0.002, 0.007 0.002 0.000, 0.004 0.001 0.000, 0.001
Model fit statistics X2 = 178.847, df = 12, p < .0001; RMSEA = 0.027; CFI = 0.991; TLI = 0.972, SRMR W = 0.003; SRMR B = 0.049 X2 = 258.072, df = 14, p < .0001; RMSEA = 0.029; CFI = 0.990; TLI = 0.971, SRMR W = 0.018; SRMR B = 0.046 X2 = 264.759, df = 14, p < .0001; RMSEA = 0.029; CFI = 0.988; TLI = 0.965, SRMR W = 0.018; SRMR B = 0.050 X2 = 263.910, df = 14, p < .0001; RMSEA = 0.029; CFI = 0.988; TLI = 0.964, SRMR W = 0.017; SRMR B = 0.047
  1. FEV 1 % percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s, SBP systolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein, Bolded data are significant