Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between Carstairs index and biomarkers, and between physical environment variables and biomarkers (multilevel linear regression models)a

From: Neighborhood deprivation and biomarkers of health in Britain: the mediating role of the physical environment

  FEV1%
B (95% CI)
SBP (mmHg)
B (95% CI)
BMI (kg/m2)
B (95% CI)
CRP (mg/L)
B (95% CI)
Carstairs indexb − 0.563 (− 0.650, − 0.475) 0.181 (0.096, 0.266) 0.157 (0.129, 0.184) 0.056 (0.044, 0.068)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2, μg/m3) −0.173 (− 0.295, − 0.050) 0.251 (0.133, 0.369) 0.105 (0.066, 0.144) 0.032 (0.015, 0.049)
Particulate matter (PM10, μg/m3) −0.509 (− 0.665, − 0.353) −0.364 (− 0.497, − 0.232) −0.039 (− 0.084, 0.005) 0.019 (− 0.000, 0.038)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2, mg/m3) −0.122 (− 0.157, − 0.087) −0.064 (− 0.095, − 0.032) −0.004 (− 0.015, 0.007) 0.004 (− 0.000, 0.008)
Carbon monoxide (CO, μg/m3) −19.566 (− 23.975, − 15.156) −5.800 (− 10.091, − 1.509) 0.196 (−1.242, 1.634) 1.199 (0.574, 1.823)
%Green space 0.042 (0.032, 0.053) 0.009 (− 0.000, 0.019) −0.002 (− 0.006, 0.001) −0.003 (− 0.004, − 0.001)
Proximity to industrial facilities −1.461 (− 2.824, − 0.097) 0.800 (− 0.496, 2.097) 0.681 (0.246, 1.117) 0.257 (0.070, 0.444)
  1. FEV 1 % percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s, SBP systolic blood pressure, BMI body mass index, CRP C-reactive protein
  2. aModel for FEV1% was adjusted by the log of household equivalised income. Models with the other outcomes were adjusted by age, gender, and the log of household equivalised income
  3. bHigher value indicates higher deprivation
  4. Bolded data are significant