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Table 2 Bivariate associations between Carstairs index and physical environment variables (N = 4929 neighborhoods)

From: Neighborhood deprivation and biomarkers of health in Britain: the mediating role of the physical environment

  Carstairs index
Estimate SE 95%CI
Sulphur dioxide (SO2, μg/m3)a 0.33 0.02 0.29, 0.37
Particulate matter (PM10, μg/m3)a 0.32 0.02 0.28, 0.36
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2, mg/m3)a 0.11 0.01 0.10, 0.12
Carbon monoxide (CO, μg/m3)a 24.51 0.65 23.22, 25.79
%Green space −0.055 0.001 −0.058, − 0.052
Proximity to industrial facilitiesb 1.01 0.24 0.54, 1.48
  1. aPopulation weighted, annual averages
  2. bProportion of neighborhood residents living within 4 Km of a waste site and/or 1.6 Km from a metal processing/production site