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Table 1 TDF’s and BCT’s used in the TRavelVU (control) and TRavelVU Plus (intervention) apps

From: The Smart City Active Mobile Phone Intervention (SCAMPI) study to promote physical activity through active transportation in healthy adults: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

TDF BCT’s Example of a message in the TRavelVU Plus app
Knowledge Information about health consequences
Instructions on how to perform the behaviour
Provide information about the behaviour
Information about antecedents
You do not need professional equipment to get started. Find your old bike, borrow one or buy one secondhand. Find out where you can park your bike at work and decide your start date!
Skills Behavioural practice/rehearsal
Habit formation
Habit reversal
Behaviour substitution
Do you commute using public transport? Why not get off at an earlier stop and walk the rest of the way?
Social/professional role and identity Identification of self as a role model Do you think someone close to you would benefit from being more physically active? Remember, you’re a role model for others! Be the first to change to a more active lifestyle!
Beliefs about capabilities/Optimism Verbal persuasion to boost self-efficacy
Mental rehearsal of successful behavior
Focus on past success
Verbal persuasion to boost self-efficacy
It is motivating to succeed in changing a habit. Start by setting a challenging but achievable goal, for example to cycle to work at least once a week instead of taking the car.
Beliefs about consequences Information about social and environmental consequences
Information about health consequences
Pros and cons
Comparative imagining of future outcomes
Material reward (behaviour)
Reward (outcome)
Cyclists contribute to cleaner air and less noise. Reduced car traffic makes the roads safer - safer roads promote cycling.
Reinforcement Reward (outcome)
Are there others in your household or at work who want to walk or cycle more? Set up a common goal to get started. Why not with a reward to do something fun together after you have walked or cycled 50 km?
Goals Goal setting (behaviour)
Problem solving
Review behaviour goals
Action planning
Barrier identification
Is it possible for you to increase the time you spend walking and cycling? Set up achievable goals and check your progress (in the app) every day.
Intentions Action planning
Is it difficult to get started with active transport? Plan your start date and stick to your plan, then take it one day at a time. Remember to set up achievable goals.
Social influences Social support (practical)
Social support (emotional)
Social comparison
Social support
Limited time is one reason why 50% of Swedish adults are physically inactive. Active transport can facilitate physical activity when there is no time for exercise. How can you create time for more active transport in your life?
Emotion Reduce negative emotions
Social support (emotional)
How are you doing? Changing habits can be challenging. Make sure to focus on what works.
Behavioural regulation Self-monitoring of behaviour (outcome)a
Self-monitoring of outcome(s) of behaviour
Feedback on behavioura
Keeping track will help you to reach your goal. Go to Summary (in the app) to track your trips during the day and throughout the week. Is there any part of your travel that can be replaced with active transport?
  1. The behaviour change taxonomy (v1) [28] where used to list theoretical domains frameworks (TDF’s) and behaviour change techniques (BCT’s) used in the TRavelVU and TRavelVU Plus apps
  2. aFeatures present in the TRavelVU app availible to the control group (e.g., feedback as summary of active transportation (not in relation to a set goal))