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Table 5 Odds ratios* for likelihood of stroke by risk factors in six LMICs, SAGE Wave 1

From: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors among older adults in six low-and middle-income countries: results from SAGE Wave 1

  China Ghana India Mexico Russian Federation South Africa
OR(95%CI) p value p value for trend OR(95%CI) p value p value for trend OR(95%CI) p value p value for trend OR(95%CI) p value p value for trend OR(95%CI) p value p value for trend OR(95%CI) p value p value for trend
Household wealth quintile
Q1 (Lowest) ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Q2 1.19 [0.82 - 1.73] 0.352   1.29 [0.47 - 3.57] 0.622   2.04 [0.96 - 4.32] 0.063   1.66 [0.59 - 4.65] 0.338   0.77 [0.39 - 1.52] 0.450   0.44 [0.20 - 0.98] 0.045  
Q3 1.05 [0.71 - 1.54] 0.816   1.48 [0.55 - 4.01] 0.436   1.92 [0.90 - 4.11] 0.093   2.39 [0.86 - 6.62] 0.094   1.44 [0.77 - 2.67] 0.252   0.61 [0.30 - 1.26] 0.181  
Q4 1.25 [0.86 - 1.83] 0.239   1.16 [0.40 - 3.41] 0.786   1.47 [0.67 - 3.21] 0.335   1.87 [0.65 - 5.40] 0.247   0.83 [0.41 - 1.68] 0.602   0.57 [0.26 - 1.23] 0.151  
Q5 (Highest) 0.99 [0.66 - 1.48] 0.953 0.958 1.96 [0.69 - 5.59] 0.210 0.317 2.01 [0.93 - 4.38] 0.078 0.225 1.95 [0.63 - 6.04] 0.246 0.248 0.80 [0.38 - 1.66] 0.548 0.659 0.52 [0.23 - 1.21] 0.129 0.301
Tobacco use
Never smoker ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Not current smoker 1.32 [0.81 - 2.13] 0.264   0.76 [0.30 - 1.92] 0.557   1.45 [0.68 - 3.09] 0.333   0.64 [0.25 - 1.63] 0.348   1.55 [0.75 - 3.19] 0.236   1.47 [0.55 - 3.93] 0.446  
Current smoker, not daily 0.67 [0.24 - 1.86] 0.444      0.54 [0.13 - 2.27] 0.401   1.24 [0.40 - 3.86] 0.704      0.96 [0.22 - 4.16] 0.956  
Current smoker, daily 1.06 [0.75 - 1.51] 0.735 0.615 1.37 [0.52 - 3.61] 0.530   1.07 [0.69 - 1.64] 0.77 0.526 0.61 [0.20 - 1.85] 0.384 0.601 1.12 [0.53 - 2.37] 0.769   1.88 [1.02 - 3.48] 0.044 0.237
Alcohol
Life time abstainer ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Non-heavy drinkers 0.44 [0.29 - 0.68] 0.000   1.30 [0.70 - 2.41] 0.415   0.41 [0.15 - 1.15] 0.091   1.00 [0.41 - 2.48] 0.992   0.88 [0.51 - 1.51] 0.639   0.76 [0.33 - 1.77] 0.527  
Infrequent heavy drinkers 0.94 [0.33 - 2.65] 0.903      2.46 [0.31 - 19.28] 0.393   2.67 [0.76 - 9.45] 0.127   1.12 [0.46 - 2.74] 0.803   0.96 [0.27 - 3.35] 0.944  
Frequent heavy drinkers 0.47 [0.21 - 1.03] 0.059 0.251     6.64 [1.39 - 31.82] 0.018 0.005          
Fruit and Vegetable intake
Sufficient ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Insufficient 1.02 [0.75 - 1.40] 0.882   1.50 [0.77 - 2.92] 0.236   0.84 [0.48 - 1.49] 0.557   0.87 [0.43 - 1.77] 0.711   0.62 [0.38 - 1.01] 0.054   0.74 [0.44 - 1.24] 0.246  
hysical activity level
High ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Moderate 1.46 [1.05 - 2.01] 0.023   1.11 [0.46 - 2.67] 0.816   0.58 [0.33 - 1.00] 0.051   1.52 [0.60 - 3.88] 0.381   1.78 [1.02 - 3.11] 0.042   0.99 [0.24 - 4.04] 0.989  
Low 2.33 [1.73 - 3.14] 0.000 0.000 1.90 [0.99 - 3.65] 0.054 0.054 1.34 [0.87 - 2.07] 0.191 0.191 2.33 [1.05 - 5.20] 0.039 0.039 2.20 [1.33 - 3.64] 0.002 0.002 4.79 [2.02 - 11.36] 0.000 0.000
Hypertension
No ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Yes 2.08 [1.57 - 2.76] 0.000   1.98 [1.04 - 3.80] 0.039   2.18 [1.49 - 3.19] 0.000   2.07 [0.96 - 4.45] 0.063   3.16 [1.72 - 5.83] 0.000   2.66 [1.20 - 5.93] 0.016  
BMI
Normal ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.    ref.   
Underweight 0.67 [0.33 - 1.34] 0.252   0.48 [0.16 - 1.41] 0.180   0.98 [0.63 - 1.52] 0.939      2.77 [0.57 - 13.43] 0.207   0.85 [0.24 - 3.06] 0.803  
Overweight 1.07 [0.82 - 1.40] 0.616   1.36 [0.69 - 2.71] 0.373   0.83 [0.49 - 1.41] 0.483   1.39 [0.63 - 3.04] 0.412   0.92 [0.52 - 1.62] 0.770   0.72 [0.35 - 1.48] 0.375  
Obesity 1.66 [1.20 - 2.28] 0.002 0.012 1.19 [0.48 - 2.98] 0.709 0.148 0.45 [0.17 - 1.16] 0.098 0.100 0.99 [0.42 - 2.34] 0.978   1.49 [0.84 - 2.63] 0.175 0.418 1.20 [0.63 - 2.28] 0.577 0.722
  1. *Adjusted for age, sex, urban/rural setting, education and marital status