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Table 1 Sociodemographic characteristics of the study samples, by country (SAGE Wave 1)

From: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors among older adults in six low-and middle-income countries: results from SAGE Wave 1

  China Ghana India Mexico Russian Federation South Africa Total
Sample size 13,157 4,305 6,560 2,318 3,938 3,836 34,114
Gender
Male 49.8 52.4 51.0 46.8 41.9 44.1 47.2
Female 50.2 47.6 49.0 53.2 58.1 55.9 52.8
Residence
Urban 47.3 41.1 28.9 78.8 70.1 64.9 50.4
Rural 52.7 58.9 71.1 21.2 29.9 35.1 49.6
Age Group
50-59 44.9 39.7 48.6 48.1 44.1 49.9 45.8
60-69 31.9 27.5 30.9 25.6 26.7 30.6 29.7
70-79 18.6 23.1 16.0 17.8 21.4 14.0 18.7
80+ 4.6 9.7 4.5 8.6 7.7 5.5 5.8
Education Level
No formal education 23.1 54.0 51.2 17.2 0.5 25.2 23.8
Less than primary 18.9 10.4 10.0 38.4 1.2 24.0 10.1
Primary school completed 21.0 10.9 14.8 24.0 5.3 22.4 13.5
Secondary school completed 19.9 4.0 10.2 9.9 17.9 14.2 16.0
High school completed 12.6 17.1 8.6 2.4 54.3 8.4 26.2
College completed 4.4 3.4 3.4 5.5 20.7 3.9 9.9
Post graduate degree completed 0.1 0.2 1.7 2.6 0.1 1.8 0.6
Income Quintile
Lowest 16.3 18.2 18.2 15.3 13.3 20.7 15.9
Second 18.1 19.1 19.5 24.7 17.1 19.9 18.2
Third 20.5 20.5 18.8 16.8 19.6 18.2 19.6
Fourth 23.4 20.7 19.6 16.6 22.1 19.8 21.7
Highest 21.8 21.6 23.9 26.6 27.8 21.3 24.5
Tobacco use
Never smoker 64.2 75.5 45.5 60.7 65.4 67.7 59.4
Not current smokers 6.6 14.2 4.7 19.1 13.2 9.5 8.5
Current smokers, not daily 2.5 2.6 2.9 6.9 2.0 3.4 2.5
Current smokers, daily 26.7 7.6 46.9 13.3 19.4 19.4 29.6
Alcohol
Life time abstainer 74.2 57.8 92.5 64.3 33.7 84.5 69.8
Non-heavy drinkers 18.2 39.5 6.9 29.3 55.4 11.5 24.3
Infrequent heavy drinkers 1.2 1.2 0.4 6.2 8.5 3.0 2.9
Frequent heavy drinkers 6.4 1.5 0.2 0.1 2.5 1.0 3.0
Fruit and vegetable intake
Sufficient 64.3 31.1 9.4 18.6 19.0 31.5 38.1
Insufficient 35.7 68.9 90.6 81.4 81.0 68.5 61.9
Physical activity levels
High 44.4 61.7 52.3 39.6 61.7 28.2 52.5
Moderate 27.3 12.5 22.8 22.4 15.4 12.3 21.2
Low 28.3 25.8 25.0 38.0 22.9 59.5 26.3