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Table 2 Predictors of adherence to medication among HIV positive pregnant women included in the quantitative studies

From: Medication adherence in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus receiving antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Domain Predictors Total number with statistical evidence for association *List of citations with statistical evidence for association Total number without statistical evidence for association List of citations with no statistical evidence for association
Patient Socio-demographic
Age of mother 3 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34], Parisotto, et al. 2011 [33], Haas, et al. 2016 [32]. 13 Kiarie, et al. 2003 [30], Delvaux, et al. 2009 [29], Bancheno, et al. 2010 [28], Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Kinuthia, et al. 2011 [26], Kirsten, et al. 2011 [25], Mirkuzie, et al. 2011 [24], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31], Buseri, et al. 2014 [23], Hampanda 2016 [21], Okawa, et al. 2015 [22], Schnack, et al. 2016 [10], Yotebieng, et al. 2016 [20].
Married/living with partner 1 Delvaux, et al. 2009 [29]. 9 Kiarie, et al. 2003 [30], Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34], Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Shapiro, et al. 2010 [66], Kinuthia, et al. 2011 [26], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31], Okawa, et al. 2015 [22], Schnack, et al. 2016 [10], Yotebieng, et al. 2016 [20].
Education 5 Delvaux, et al. 2009 [29], Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34], Kuonza, et al. 2010 [36], El-Khatib, et al. 2011 [35], Schnack, et al. 2016 [10]. 8 Kiarie, et al. 2003 [30], Bancheno, et al. 2010 [28], Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Kinuthia, et al. 2011 [26], Kirsten, et al. 2011 [25], Mirkuzie, et al. 2011 [24], Hampanda 2016 [21], Okawa, et al. 2015 [22]
Illiteracy in primary language 1 Stringer, et al. 2003 [37]. 0  
Patient belief system
Religion 0   1 Delvaux, et al. 2009 [29].
Cultural beliefs: Use of traditional medicine/visiting traditional healer/birth attendant 2 Banda, et al. 2007 [47], Itoua, et al. 2015 [46]. 2 Kuonza, et al. 2010 [36], Peltzer, et al. 2011 [50].
Patient knowledge about HIV/MTCT 2 Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31]. 3 Peltzer, et al. 2008 [52], Peltzer, et al. 2011 [50], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48].
Patient knowledge of HIV diagnosis before pregnancy 1 Parisotto, et al. 2011 [33]. 1 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34].
Patient knowledge of HIV diagnosis during pregnancy 2 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34], Okawa, et al. 2015 [22]. 0  
Patient attitude to MTCT 0   2 Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48], Hampanda 2016 [21].
Psychological
Forgetting to take ARV 1 Itoua, et al. 2015 [46]. 0  
Patient condition Obstetric/ pregnancy history
Parity 2 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34], Kuonza, et al. 2010 [36]. 5 Kiarie, et al. 2003 [30], Kirsten, et al. 2011 [25], Mirkuzie, et al. 2011 [24], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31], Hampanda 2016 [21].
Cervical dilation 1 Megazzini, et al. 2009 [58] 0  
Stage of pregnancy/gestational age 2 Barigye, et al. 2010 [57], Parisotto, et al. 2011 [33]. 4 Mirkuzie, et al. 2011 [24], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48], Schnack, et al. 2016 [10], Yotebieng, et al. 2016 [20].
Exposed to PMTCT in previous pregnancy 1 Kuonza, et al. 2010 [36]. 2 El-Khatib, et al.2011 [35], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31]
Premature delivery 1 Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27]. 0  
WHO Clinical staging 2 Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48], Haas, et al. 2016 [32]. 0  
CD4 count at admission 1 Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48], 0  
Therapy Duration on therapy 2 Barigye, et al. 2010 [57], Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34]. 1 Mirkuzie, et al. 2011 [24].
Type of PMTCT drug regimen 1 Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48]. 1 Mepham, et al. 2011 [38]
ARV side effects 1 Kamuyango, et al. 2014 [77] 1 Itoua, et al. 2015 [46].
Social and economic Women empowerment
Not receiving financial support from a partner or husband 1 El-Khatib, et al. 2011 [35]. 0  
Income generating activities /occupation 2 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34],
Bisio, et al.2013 [75].
7 Kiarie, et al. 2003 [30], Kuonza, et al. 2010 [36], El-Khatib, et al. 2011 [35], Kinuthia, et al. 2011 [26], Kirsten, et al. 2011 [25], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31], Hampanda 2016 [21], Schnack, et al. 2016 [10].
Housing(monthly rent) 1 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34]. 0  
Financial difficulty
Distance to health facility 0   2 Itoua, et al. 2015 [46], Schnack, et al. 2016 [10].
Partner and community
Partner aware/informed of HIV test results/willing to have HIV test/partner came for HIV test/partner support use of ARV 10 Kiarie, et al. 2003 [30], Farquhar, et al. 2004 [54], Msuya, et al. 2008 [53], Peltzer, et al. 2008 [52], Delvaux, et al. 2009 [29], Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34], Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Kirsten, et al. 2011 [25], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48], Hampanda 2016 [21]. 4 Barigye, et al. 2010 [57], Kinuthia, et al. 2011 [26], Mepham, et al. 2011 [38], Mirkuzie, et al. 2011 [24].
Partner uninformed about ARV 1 Itoua, et al. 2015 [46]. 1 Matthews, et al. 2016. [76]
Disclosure to someone(not partner)/discussion of PMTCT prophylaxis with family/friends/others 6 Peltzer, et al. 2008 [52], Delvaux, et al. 2009 [29], Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Peltzer, et al. 2011 [50], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48]. 3 Barigye, et al. 2010 [57], Mepham, et al. 2011 [38], Matthews, et al. 2016 [76].
male partner involvement in PMTCT/ANC 2 Peltzer, et al. 2011 [50], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48]. 1 Schnack, et al. 2016 [10].
Partner violence
Sexual violence 1 Hampanda 2016 [21]. 0  
Emotional violence 0   1 Hampanda 2016 [21].
Physical violence 0   1 Hampanda 2016 [21].
Partners’ HIV status
Positive 1 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34]. 0  
Negative 0   1 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34].
Unknown 0   1 Igwegbe, et al. 2010 [34].
Attend support group/treatment supporter/partner support 4 Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Peltzer, et al. 2011 [50], Ekama, et al. 2012 [31], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48]. 0  
Place of residence
Living in a village where HIV research is being conducted 1 Barigye, et al. 2010 [57]. 0  
Living in rural or urban. 0   1 Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48]
HIV related stigma/experienced discrimination 3 Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Kinuthia, et al. 2011 [26], Peltzer, et al. 2011 [50]. 0  
Feeling embarrassed 1 Itoua, et al. 2015 [46]. 0  
Health care team/Health system Number of ANC visits/clinic attendance 3 Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Megazzini, 2009 [58], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48] 1 Mepham, et al. 2011 [38].
Quality of post-test counseling/counseling on ARV side effects 2 Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27], Ebuy, et al. 2015 [48]. 0  
Confidentiality at health facility 1 Peltzer, et al. 2010 [27] 0  
  1. ANC Antenatal clinic, ARV Antiretroviral, ART Antiretroviral therapy, MTCT Mother to child transmission of HIV, WHO World Health Organization, PMTCT Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV:*Statistical evidence for an association (p < 0.05 or90%CI excludes the null value of one) was reported with at least one relevant/related outcome such as adherence to medication/receipt or ingestion PMTCT ARVs for prophylaxis/combination ART/attendance at ART/PMTCT clinic