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Table 2 Bivariate associations with delay interval (in days)

From: Impact of geographic distance on appraisal delay for active TB treatment seeking in Uganda: a network analysis of the Kawempe Community Health Cohort Study

Treatment-seeking characteristic Overall median or frequency (%) (N = 878) Marginal change in number of days’ delay (95% CI) P
Geographic distance
 Pedestrian network travel time (minutes) (N = 840)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 74.6 (56.0) [7.4/236.0] 0.05 (−0.05, 0.15) 0.35
 Driving network travel time (minutes) (N = 840)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 47.3 (25.9) [5.7/158.5] 0.13 (−0.05, 0.30) 0.16
 Euclidean distance (kilometers) (N = 840)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 2.78 (2.36) [0.24/10.78] 0.78 (−1.24, 2.80) 0.45
 Self-reported distance (N = 865) (kilometers)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 5 (5) [0/20] 0.87 (−0.18, 1.92) 0.10
Predisposing factors
 Sex
  Male 464 (53%) −3.32 (−9.65, 3.0) 0.30
  Female 414 (47%) Ref  
 Age (in years)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 27 (12) [18/80] 0.60 (0.03, 1.12) 0.04
 Married
  Yes 406 (46%) 3.04 (−3.34, 9.43) 0.35
  No 472 (54%) Ref  
 Tribe
  Buganda 496 (56%) −1.86 (−8.21, 4.49) 0.57
  Other 382 (44%) Ref  
 Religion
  Roman Catholic (RC) 273 (31%) −3.26 (−13.2, 6.63) 0.52
  Anglican 263 (30%) 7.10 (−4.2, 18.5) 0.22
  Muslim 203 (23%) −0.82 (−11.1, 9.5) 0.88
  Other 138 (16%) Ref  
Enabling Factors
 Education (years) (N = 877)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 11 (7) [1/17] −0.75 (−1.51, 0.02) 0.06
 Household size (N = 874)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 3 (3) [1/30] −0.05 (− 1.76, 1.66) 0.96
 Person/room
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 2.5 (2.43) [0/14] −0.18 (−2.05, 1.69) 0.85
 Windows/room
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 0.8 (1) [0/2.5] −0.35 (−6.47, 5.78) 0.91
 Type of residence
  Muzigo 613 (70%) −1.43 (−8.59, 5.71) 0.70
  Other 265 (30%) Ref  
Need factors
Perceived by patient
 Cough most recent symptom
  Yes 158 (18%) 15.49 (6, 25) 0.001
  No 720 (82%) Ref  
 Total number of symptoms (N = 874)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 7 (3) [0/23] −0.68 (−1.71, 0.35) 0.20
Need factors
Evaluated by doctor
 Modified Bandim TB score
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 6 (2) [0/12] 0.31 (−1.40, 2.01) 0.73
 TST Cut-off 10 mm
  Positive 644 (85%) −4.03 (−16.3, 8.27) 0.52
  Negative 111 (15%) Ref  
 BCG Vaccination
  Yes 492 (65%) 2.52 (−2.51, 7.56) 0.33
  No 264 (35%) Ref  
 BMI (N = 876)
  Median (IQR) [Min/Max] 19 (3.2) [12.4/35.5] −0.83 (−1.83, 0.16) 0.10
 HIV Status
  Positive 265 (30%) −5.65 (−12.2, 0.86) 0.09
  Negative 612 (70%) Ref  
 Index Karnofsky
  ≥ 80 798 (91%) 0.11 (−0.38, 0.60) 0.66
  < 80 80 (9%) Ref  
 Cavitary disease
  Yes 539 (63%) 9.50 (3.30, 15.70) 0.003
  No 321 (37%) Ref  
 Cavitary disease extenta
  Far advanced 455 (53%) 10.47 (1.04, 19.90) 0.03
  Mod advanced 304 (35%) 0.45 (−9.43, 10.33) 0.93
  Normal or Minimal 101 (14%) Ref  
 AFB Grade smear
  3+ 713 (81%) 11.12 (2.3, 19.94) 0.01
  2+ 106 (12%) 12.29 (−2.4, 27)) 0.10
  0–1+ 59 (7%) Ref  
 Culture result
  50+ colonies 588 (68%) 9.03 (−0.3, 18.35) 0.06
  30–49 colonies 155 (18%) 9.17 (−2.5, 20.84) 0.12
  0–29 colonies 128 (15%) Ref  
Personal health behaviors
 Smoking
  Current or former smoker 164 (19%) 5.29 (−1.3, 11.85) 0.12
  Never smoke 713 (81%) Ref  
 Alcohol intake
  Yes 204 (23%) −4.06 (−10.6, 2.44) 0.22
  No 673 (77%) Ref  
  1. Ref Reference category, TST tuberculin skin test
  2. aReference group comprised normal (N = 28) and minimal (N = 73) cavitary disease