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Table 9 Multiple comorbidities associated with age-comparative self-rated health stratified by age and educational levela

From: Association between multiple comorbidities and self-rated health status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: the China Kadoorie Biobank study

  Age P for interaction Education level P for interaction
30-59 yr ≥ 60 yr No formal education Primary school Middle school or higher
OR 95%CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI   
Cardiometabolic diseases
 Coronary heart disease 6.55 5.89, 7.29 4.01 3.68, 4.38 < 0.001 3.48 2.92, 4.14 5.32 4.68, 6.06 4.68 4.30, 5.08 0.03
 Rheumatic heart disease 6.31 4.55, 8.74 5.21 3.24, 8.39 0.56 5.78 3.05, 10.97 4.69 2.96, 7.43 7.71 5.27, 11.28 0.39
 Stroke 9.54 8.22, 11.07 7.92 7.07, 8.88 < 0.001 8.04 6.33, 10.22 8.02 6.81, 9.43 7.96 7.09, 8.94 0.78
 Hypertension 1.42 1.38, 1.46 1.29 1.23, 1.35 0.07 1.30 1.24, 1.37 1.40 1.34, 1.47 1.57 1.52, 1.63 0.007
 Diabetes 3.19 3.01, 3.39 2.68 2.49, 2.88 < 0.001 2.60 2.34, 2.88 2.79 2.56, 3.03 3.42 3.21, 3.63 < 0.001
Respiratory diseases
 Tuberculosis 2.34 2.10, 2.61 1.46 1.28, 1.66 < 0.001 2.52 1.96, 3.25 1.83 1.56, 2.15 1.85 1.66, 2.05 0.03
 Emphysema/bronchitis 4.63 4.22, 5.08 3.67 3.31, 4.07 0.001 4.37 3.76, 5.07 5.16 4.59, 5.81 3.48 3.14, 3.85 < 0.001
 Asthma 3.96 3.30, 4.74 3.18 2.47, 4.09 0.06 3.67 2.39, 5.64 2.63 1.98, 3.50 4.26 3.55, 5.13 0.15
Musculoskeletal diseases
 Fracture 1.18 1.13, 1.24 1.12 1.03, 1.22 0.003 1.33 1.21, 1.46 1.11 1.03, 1.20 1.18 1.11, 1.25 0.38
 Rheumatoid arthritis 3.04 2.78, 3.32 1.98 1.75, 2.24 < 0.001 2.42 2.06, 2.85 2.67 2.35, 3.04 2.81 2.54, 3.10 0.67
Mental diseases
 Depressive Symptoms 4.01 3.46, 4.65 3.13 2.33, 4.22 0.02 3.66 2.70, 4.95 3.62 2.83, 4.61 4.17 3.48, 5.01 0.25
 Psychiatric disorders 5.68 4.53, 7.11 3.46 2.39, 5.01 0.002 4.34 2.97, 6.35 3.88 2.80, 5.38 5.82 4.37, 7.77 0.07
 Neurasthenia 4.07 3.61, 4.58 1.89 1.59, 2.25 < 0.001 3.71 2.85, 4.85 2.94 2.43, 3.57 3.25 2.88, 3.67 0.45
Digestive diseases
 Cirrhosis/chronic hepatitis 3.16 2.82, 3.55 2.13 1.75, 2.60 < 0.001 2.68 2.00, 3.59 2.86 2.36, 3.48 2.71 2.39, 3.07 0.80
 Peptic ulcer 2.74 2.57, 2.91 1.85 1.67, 2.04 < 0.001 2.70 2.34, 3.10 2.57 2.34, 2.83 2.40 2.24, 2.56 0.07
 Gallstone/gallbladder disease 2.37 2.25, 2.50 1.68 1.55, 1.82 < 0.001 2.26 2.05, 2.48 2.17 2.00, 2.36 2.14 2.01, 2.27 0.04
Cancer 7.69 6.19, 9.56 5.38 4.28, 6.76 0.002 4.48 3.13, 6.41 6.96 5.19, 9.34 7.16 5.80, 8.85 0.04
Other diseases
 Kidney disease 2.49 2.27, 2.73 1.92 1.63, 2.26 < 0.001 2.07 1.64, 2.61 2.19 1.89, 2.55 2.40 2.17, 2.66 0.35
 Head injury 1.54 1.39, 1.71 1.44 1.16, 1.77 0.06 1.70 1.29, 2.22 1.65 1.39, 1.96 1.42 1.26, 1.60 0.42
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals, OR odds ratio
  2. aParticipants answering “don’t know” (n = 15,691) and “about the same” (n = 321,218) for the age-comparative self-rated health status question were excluded from the analysis, leaving 175,980 participants in this analysis
  3. Odds ratios (95% CI) were calculated after adjustment of age, sex, study location, marital status, household income, education level, occupation, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, physical activity, BMI, family history of five diseases (stroke, heart attack, diabetes, mental disorders and cancer) and all comorbidities, except for the stratified variable in the corresponding stratified analysis