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Table 8 Multiple comorbidities associated with age-comparative self-rated health stratified by residential location and sexa

From: Association between multiple comorbidities and self-rated health status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: the China Kadoorie Biobank study

  Administrative region P for interaction Sex P for interaction
Rural Urban Male Female
OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Cardiometabolic diseases
 Coronary heart disease 5.62 4.92, 6.43 4.20 3.90, 4.53 < 0.001 4.96 4.47, 5.49 4.24 3.91, 4.60 0.37
 Rheumatic heart disease 6.96 4.66, 10.38 5.37 3.74, 7.72 0.29 7.06 4.03, 12.36 5.81 4.29, 7.86 0.66
 Stroke 9.40 7.98, 11.06 6.29 5.66, 6.97 < 0.001 10.21 9.08, 11.48 5.50 4.82, 6.26 < 0.001
 Hypertension 1.40 1.35, 1.45 1.53 1.48, 1.58 0.001 1.44 1.39, 1.50 1.49 1.45, 1.54 < 0.001
 Diabetes 2.82 2.61, 3.05 3.18 3.01, 3.36 0.30 3.41 3.17, 3.66 2.80 2.64, 2.96 0.07
Respiratory diseases
 Tuberculosis 2.23 1.95, 2.56 1.65 1.49, 1.83 < 0.001 1.88 1.68, 2.11 1.82 1.62, 2.06 0.94
 Emphysema/bronchitis 6.35 5.71, 7.06 3.16 2.88, 3.46 < 0.001 4.38 3.97, 4.82 4.19 3.81, 4.61 0.99
 Asthma 3.24 2.49, 4.21 4.30 3.62, 5.11 0.40 3.57 2.87, 4.44 3.59 2.95, 4.37 0.92
Musculoskeletal diseases
 Fracture 1.23 1.15, 1.31 1.23 1.17, 1.29 0.11 1.18 1.12, 1.26 1.16 1.09, 1.23 0.52
 Rheumatoid arthritis 2.76 2.48, 3.08 2.69 2.45, 2.96 0.14 2.37 2.08, 2.69 2.79 2.56, 3.04 0.002
Mental diseases
 Depressive Symptoms 3.45 2.91, 4.09 4.48 3.66, 5.48 0.04 3.77 3.00, 4.75 3.91 3.33, 4.59 0.88
 Psychiatric disorders 4.51 3.44,5.90 5.17 3.98, 6.72 0.32 5.65 3.93, 8.13 4.48 3.59, 5.58 0.29
 Neurasthenia 3.35 2.88,3.90 3.16 2.79, 3.57 0.25 2.61 2.19, 3.11 3.50 3.12, 3.93 0.001
Digestive diseases
 Cirrhosis/chronic hepatitis 3.00 2.61, 3.44 2.85 2.48, 3.28 0.96 3.04 2.68, 3.46 2.28 1.95, 2.66 0.004
 Peptic ulcer 3.15 2.91, 3.40 2.09 1.95, 2.23 < 0.001 2.21 2.06, 2.37 2.82 2.61, 3.05 < 0.001
 Gallstone/gallbladder disease 2.37 2.22, 2.53 2.10 1.99, 2.22 < 0.001 2.02 1.86, 2.19 2.20 2.09, 2.31 0.001
Cancer 5.10 3.98, 6.53 7.20 5.92, 8.76 0.07 8.67 6.62, 11.35 5.33 4.41, 6.44 0.007
Other diseases
 Kidney disease 2.36 2.11, 2.63 2.32 2.07, 2.60 0.98 2.18 1.91, 2.50 2.38 2.15, 2.63 0.09
 Head injury 1.59 1.39, 1.83 1.47 1.30, 1.66 0.83 1.45 1.29, 1.64 1.62 1.39, 1.88 0.28
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals, OR odds ratio
  2. aParticipants answering “don’t know” (n = 15,691) and “about the same” (n = 321,218) for the age-comparative self-rated health status question were excluded from the analysis, leaving 175,980 participants in this analysis.
  3. Odds ratios (95% CI) were calculated after adjustment of age, sex, study location, marital status, household income, education level, occupation, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, physical activity, BMI, family history of five diseases (stroke, heart attack, diabetes, mental disorders and cancer) and all comorbidities, except for the stratified variable in the corresponding stratified analysis