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Table 12 Multiple comorbidities associated with age-comparative self-rated health status: multinomial logistic regression analysis using “about the same” as the reference groupa

From: Association between multiple comorbidities and self-rated health status in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: the China Kadoorie Biobank study

  About the same Better Worse
OR OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
Cardiometabolic diseases
 Coronary heart disease 1 0.61 0.57, 0.64 2.69 2.59, 2.80
 Rheumatic heart disease 1 0.66 0.51, 0.85 3.92 3.38, 4.55
 Stroke 1 0.56 0.51, 0.60 4.12 3.92, 4.33
 Hypertension 1 0.85 0.83, 0.86 1.25 1.23, 1.28
 Diabetes 1 0.70 0.67, 0.72 2.08 2.02, 2.14
Respiratory diseases
 Tuberculosis 1 0.86 0.80, 0.92 1.62 1.53, 1.72
 Emphysema/bronchitis 1 0.67 0.63, 0.72 2.93 2.81, 3.05
 Asthma 1 0.74 0.64, 0.84 2.52 2.30, 2.75
Musculoskeletal diseases
 Fracture 1 1.01 0.98, 1.04 1.19 1.15, 1.23
 Rheumatoid arthritis 1 0.79 0.75, 0.84 2.10 2.00, 2.21
Mental diseases
 Depressive Symptoms 1 0.94 0.83, 1.07 3.49 3.22, 3.78
 Psychiatric disorders 1 0.56 0.46, 0.66 2.62 2.36, 2.91
 Neurasthenia 1 0.74 0.68, 0.81 2.39 2.25, 2.55
Digestive diseases
 Cirrhosis/chronic hepatitis 1 0.75 0.69, 0.82 1.97 1.85, 2.10
 Peptic ulcer 1 0.74 0.71, 0.77 1.83 1.76, 1.90
 Gallstone/gallbladder disease 1 0.77 0.74, 0.80 1.61 1.61, 1.71
Cancer 1 0.61 0.53, 0.71 3.93 3.60, 4.29
Other diseases
 Kidney disease 1 0.79 0.74, 0.85 1.86 1.76, 1.97
 Head injury 1 0.97 0.90, 1.05 1.49 1.39, 1.60
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence intervals, OR odds ratio
  2. aParticipants answering “don’t know” (n = 15,691) for the age-comparative self-rated health status question were excluded from the analysis, leaving 497,198 participants in this analysis
  3. Odds ratios (95% CI) were calculated after adjustment of age, sex, study location, marital status, household income, education level, occupation, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, physical activity, BMI, family history of five diseases (stroke, heart attack, diabetes, mental disorders and cancer) and all comorbidities