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Table 2 Relative odds of depression with having daytime nap and sleep-related factors in overall population (N = 512,891) *

From: The relationship between depression, daytime napping, daytime dysfunction, and snoring in 0.5 million Chinese populations: exploring the effects of socio-economic status and age

  Female (N = 302,632) P Male (N = 210,259) P
Have daytime nap ** 1.15 (1.01–1.31) 0.0495 1.42 (1.18–1.71) 0.0002
Have daytime dysfunction 2.79 (2.46–3.17) < 0.0001 2.99 (2.40–3.73) < 0.0001
Have difficulty falling asleep and interrupted sleep 3.05 (2.75–3.39) < 0.0001 3.69 (3.14–4.33) < 0.0001
Snore during sleep 1.34 (1.19–1.50) < 0.0001 1.17 (0.99–1.39) 0.0586
Take medicine to sleep 1.84 (1.57–2.14) < 0.0001 2.00 (1.51–2.63) < 0.0001
Sleep duration
  ≤ 6 h 1.64 (1.48–1.82) < 0.0001 1.70 (1.46–1.98) < 0.0001
  ≥ .0001.4 1.72 (1.43–2.05) < 0.0001 1.65 (1.28–2.12) 0.0001
Smoking
 Occasional smoke 1.25 (1.00–1.55) 0.0502 1.03 (0.82–1.30) 0.7901
 Frequent smoke 1.39 (1.13–1.73) 0.0024 1.10 (0.89–1.35) 0.3906
Alcohol
 Occasional drink 1.04 (0.94–1.15) 0.4709 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 0.4913
 Frequent drink 1.03 (0.82–1.29) 0.7979 0.88 (0.73–1.07) 0.2019
  1. *Odds ratio was adjusted for residency, age, family mental disorder history, blood pressure, education, income, occupation, BMI, marital status, smoking, alcohol, MET statuses, sleep snoring, taking medicine for sleep, daytime dysfunction, difficulty falling asleep and interrupted sleep, total sleep duration, and disease statuses
  2. **“Have no daytime nap”, “have no daytime dysfunction”, “don’t have difficulty falling asleep and interrupted sleep”, “don’t snore during sleep”, “don’t need to take medicine to sleep”, “have sleep duration of 7–9 h per day”, “never smoke”, and “never drink alcohol” groups were chosen to be the reference groups