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Table 2 Coinfection cases of Dengue and Chikungunya

From: Global prevalence and distribution of coinfection of malaria, dengue and chikungunya: a systematic review

S.No. Citations Place Year Study design N Positive for coinfection Coinfection (%) Age Diagnostic test DN/CK Remarks
South Asia
1. Afreen [72] Delhi,
India
2014 Cross sectional 87 9 10 All ages NS1, IgM, IgG ELISA, PCR/ IgM ELISA, PCR DENV2 + CHIKV-5, DENV3 + CHIKV -2, DENV1 + CHIKV-1, DENV1 + DENV2+ CHIKV-1
2. Carey [73] Vellore,
India
1964 Cross sectional 477 8 2 All ages Virus isolation
Serological
Complement fixation and Hemagglutination inhibition assay for both infection
NM
3. Chahar [74] Delhi,
India
2006 Cross sectional 69 6 9 All ages PCR/PCR DENV1, DENV3, DENV4
4. Galate [75] Mumbai,  Maharashtra April 2012-Oct. 2013 Cross sectional 200 19 10 13–60 IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA NM
5. Hapuarachchi [76] Sri Lanka 2006 Case report 1 1 NA 70 PCR/PCR NM
6. Kalawat [77] Tirupati,
India
2011 Retrospective analysis 72 2 3 All ages IgM ELISA / IgM ELISA NM
7. Kaur [78] Delhi,
India
Aug-Dec. 2016 Cross sectional 600 152 25 11–68 IgM ELISA, NS1 ELISA, PCR/IgM ELISA, PCR NM
8. Londhey [79] Mumbai,
India
June 2010–April 2015 Prospective observational study 300 30 10 All ages IgM ELISA, PCR/ IgM ELISA, PCR NM
9. Mørch [34] Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Anantpur, Tamilnadu
India
April 2011–November 2012 Cross sectional 1564 25 1.6 34 mean age IgM, NS1 ELISA/IgM ELISA NM
10. Mukherjee [80] Kolkata,
India
July 2014-Oct. 2015 Cross sectional 326 53 16 All ages IgM and NS1 ELISA, PCR/IgM ELISA, PCR DENV2, DENV4
11. Neeraja [81] Hyderabad, Telangana 2007 Cross sectional 713 8 1 NM IgG, IgM, PCR/PCR NM
12. Paulo [82] Potugal,
Infected in India
2016 Case report 1 1 NA 65 PCR/IgM ELISA DENV3
13. Rahim [83] Dhaka, Bangladesh 2017 Case report 1 1 NA 23 female NS1 ELISA/IgM ELISA NM
14. Saswat [84] Khurda, Odisha
Aurangabad,
Maharashtra India
July-Dec. 2013 Cross sectional 222 43 19 All ages NS1, IgM, IgG ELISA, PCR/IgM ELISA, PCR DENV2
15. Shaikh [85] Karnataka,
India
July 2010–June 2013 Cross sectional 6554 532 8 NM IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA NM
16. Schilling [86] Chennai,
India
September 2008 Case report 1 1 NA 25 NS1, IgM ELISA and IFA/IgM IFA NM
17. Taraphdar [87] West Bengal, India 2010 Cross sectional 550 68 12 All ages IgM ELISA, PCR / IgM ELISA, PCR DENV2, DENV3
18. Kularatne [88] Peradeniya, Srilanka Dec. 2006-March 2007 Cross sectional 54 3 5 15–74 IgM ELISA, Hemagglutination inhibition/ IgM ELISA, Hemagglutination inhibition NM
Africa
19. Baba [47] Nigeria July-Dec. 2008 Cross sectional 310 63 20 All ages PRNT/PRNT NM
20. Caron [89] Gabon Sep 2007-Aug 2010 Cross sectional 4287 37 1 All ages PCR of partial E gene/ PCR of partial E1 gene DENV2
21. Dariano [50] Bo, Sierra Leone 2012–2013 Cross sectional 1260 13 1 All ages IgM, IgG, NS1 ELISA/IgM ELISA NM
22. Leroy [90] Gabon March–July 2007 Cross sectional 773 8 1 NM PCR/ PCR DENV2
23. Nkoghe [91] Franceville, Gabon Feb-July 2010 Cross sectional 433 20 4.6 1–77 PCR/PCR NM
24. Parreira [92] Portugal, infected in Luanda, Angola January 2014 Case report 1 1 NA Early 50s NS1 IgM, IgG ELISA, PCR/IgM ELISA, PCR DENV4
25. Ratsitorahina [93] Tomasina,
Madagascar
Jan-March 2006 Cross sectional 55 10 18 NM IgM ELISA, PCR/IgM ELISA, PCR DENV1
Caribbean
26. Edwards [94] Guatemala June 2015 Surveillance report 144 46 32 All ages PCR/ PCR DENV1–4, DENV2–40, DENV4–2
27. Omarjee [95] Island of Saint Martin Dec. 2013-
Jan 2014
Cross sectional 1502 16 1 All ages IgM, IgG ELISA and PCR / IgM, IgG ELISA and PCR DENV1–10, DENV2–2, DENV4–4
Southeast Asia
28. Cha [96] Osong korea Infected (2 in Philllipine, 1 Vietnam, 1 Indonesia, 1 East Timor) 2009–2010 Cross sectional 486 5 1 11–70 IgM ELISA, PCR/ IgM ELISA, PCR NM
29. Chang [97] Taipei China, infected in Singapore 2009 April Case report 1 1 NA 12 IgM and IgG ELISA, PCR/ IgM and IgG ELISA, PCR DENV2
30. Khai Ming [98] Rangoon, Burma July 1970-Dec. 1972 Cross sectional 2060 55 2.6 0–11 HI, CF/HI, CF NM
31. Laoprasopwattana [99] Southern Thailand April–July 2009 Prospective Cohort study 50 1 2 ≤15 IgM ELISA and Hemagglutination inhibition/IgM IFA, PCR NM
32. Nayar [100] Kinta,
Malaysia
2006 Case report 2 2 NA 22 and 28 NS1, IgM ELISA, PCR/PCR DENV1
33. Ooi [101] Selangor, Malaysia, 2009 Case report 1 1 NA NM NM/Complete Genome sequencing of CHIKV DENV2
34. Phommanivong [102] Champasak Laos July-Aug 2013 Cross sectional 40 5 12.5 5–65 PCR/PCR DENV2–3,
DENV3–2
35. Tun [103] Mandalay,
Myanmar
July–October 2010 Cross sectional 116 7 6 ≤12 IgM ELISA, PCR/IgM ELISA, PCR NM
North America
36. Kariyawasam [104] Toronto, Canada May 2006-April 2007 and Feb 2013-March 2014 Retrospective analysis 1304 1 0.07 0–91 PCR/PCR DENV-1
37. Lindholm [105] Maryland,
USA
Dec 2013-May 2015 Cross sectional 267 2 0.7 25–60 IgM, IgG ELISA, PCR, PRNT/ IgM, IgG ELISA, PCR, PRNT NM
South America
38. Bocanegra [106] Barcelona Spain Infected in south America April 2014–2015 Retrospective 42 5 12 34.6 mean age IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA, PCR NM
39. Brooks [107] Santos,
Brazil
2017 Case report 1 1 NA 27 IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA NM
40. Calvo [108] Girardot,
Colombia
Feb 2015 Cross sectional 8 4 50 0–10 IgM ELISA, PCR/PCR NM
41. Carrillo-Hernández [109] Norte de Santander, Colombia August 2015 – April 2016 Cross sectional 157 12 7.6 26.81 PCR/PCR NM
42. Farrell [110] Machala, Ecuador 2015 Case report 1 1 NA 35 IgM, IgG ELISA/PCR NM
43. Gomez-Govea [111] Nuevo leon,
Mexico
Jan-Oct 2015 Cross sectional 101 5 5 31 median age IgM ELISA/IgM ELISA, PCR NM
44. Mercado [112] Bogota, Colombia Sept 2014-Oct 2015 Retrospective analysis 58 7 12 NM IgM ELISA, PCR/PCR NM
45. Rosso [113] Cali,
Colombia
2015 Case report 1 1 NA 72 PCR/ PCR DENV3
Middle East
46. Malik [114] Al-Hudaydah, Yemen Oct 2010-March 2011 Cross sectional 136 1 0.7 NM IgM ELISA, PCR/IgM ELISA NM
47. Rezza [115] Al-Hudaydah
Yemen
2012 Cross sectional 400 14 3.5 All ages IgM, IgG ELISA and PCR/ IgM, IgG ELISA and PCR DENV2 Predominantly
  1. N – sample size, DN/CK – Dengue/Chikungunya coinfection, ELISA – Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, NS1 - Dengue non-structural protein −1, PCR – Polymerase Chain reaction, IFA – immunofluorescence assay, PRNT – Plaque reduction neutralisation test, NM – not mentioned, NA – not applicable