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Table 1 Coinfection cases of Malaria and Dengue

From: Global prevalence and distribution of coinfection of malaria, dengue and chikungunya: a systematic review

S.No. Citation Place Year Study design N Positive for coinfection Coinfection (%) Age Diagnostic test ML/DN Remarks
South Asia
1 Abbasi [17] Karachi,
Pakistan
Sept.2007-Jan. 2008 Cross sectional 112 26 23 13–70 Blood smear / IgM and IgG ELISA P. vivax- 25,  P. falciparum- 1
2 Ahmad [18] Uttarakhand, India Dec 2012-Dec2013 Retrospective observational studies 233 9 3.8 38.6 ± 16 Blood smear/ IgM ELISA NM
3 Alam [19] Patna,
India
2013 Case report 1 1 NA 42 Blood smear /NS1, IgM and IgG ELISA P. falciparum
4 Ali [20] Rawalpindi,
Pakistan
Nov. 2003-Oct. 2004 Cross sectional 800 9 1 17–50 years Blood smear /IgM ELISA P. vivax-8, P. falciparum-1
5 Arya [21] Delhi,
India
2003 Case report 2 2 NA 35 and 63 years Blood smear /IgM ELISA P. vivax
6 Assir [22] Lahore,
Pakistan
Aug- Nov 2012 Cross sectional 856 17 2 12–32 Blood smear /PCR, NS1 and IgM ELISA P. vivax - 14, P. falciparum-3
7 Barua [23] Mumbai,
India
June-Nov. 2014, June -Nov. 2015 Retrospective analysis 573 44 8 NM Blood smear / NS1 and IgM ELISA NM
8 Bhagat [24] Mumbai,
India
2014 Case report 3 3 NA 8 months −12 year Blood smear, RDT/NS1, IgM and IgG ELISA P. vivax
9 Bhalla [25] Delhi,
India
2006 Case report 1 1 NA 21 Blood smear /IgM ELISA P. falciparum
10 Chander [26] Chandigarh,
India
2009 Case report 1 1 NA 28 Blood smear /IgM ELISA P. falciparum
11 Deresinski [27] USA, infected in India 2003, Dec Case report 1 1 NA 27 Blood smear/IgM and IgG ELISA P. vivax
12 Faruque [28] Chittagong,
Bangladesh
Dec. 2008-Nov. 2009 Cross sectional 720 1 0.1 All ages RDT/IgM ELISA P. vivax
13 Hati [29] Kolkata,
India
Aug 2005-Dec 2010 Cross sectional 2971 46 1.5 NM Blood smear /IgM and IgG ELISA P. vivax-28, P. falciparum-18
14 Kaushik [30] Dehradun,
India
2006 Case report 1 1 NA 26 Blood smear/ IgM and IgG ELISA P. vivax + P. falciparum
15 Malhotra [31] Patiala,
India
2012 Case report 1 1 NA 27 Blood smear /NS1 and IgM ELISA P. vivax
16 Mittal [32] Dehradun, India Dec 2012- Nov 2013 Retrospective observational study 2547 8 0.3 Above 18 Blood film, RDT/IgM, NS1 ELISA NM
17 Mohapatra [33] Odisha,
India
June-Sep 2011 Prospective observational study 469 27 6 NM Blood smear /IgM and NS1 ELISA P. falciparum-24, P. vivax – 2, P. falciparum + P. vivax - 1
18 Mørch [34] Assam,  Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Anantpur Tamilnadu
India
April 2011–November 2012 Cross sectional 1564 58 3.7 34 mean age Blood smear/IgM, NS1 ELISA/ NM
19 Mushtaq [35] Srinagar, infected in Delhi,
India
Oct - 2012 Case report 1 1 NA 25 Blood smear, RDT/ IgM ELISA P. falciparum + P. vivax
20 Pande [36] Meerut,
India
2013 Case report 1 1 NA 25 Blood smear /NS1 and IgM ELISA P. falciparum, P. vivax
21 Raja [37] Chennai,
India
May 2013- Jan 2014 Cross sectional 100 3 3 NM Blood smear/ELISA NM
22 Rani [38] Hyderabad, India 2015 Case report 1 1 NA 30s Blood smear/IgM ELISA NM
23 Rao [39] Odisha (Angul), India Jan-Dec 2013 Cross sectional 1980 22 1 All ages Blood smear, RDT/ IgM and NS1 ELISA, PCR P. falciparum- 12, P. vivax- 10
24 Singh [40] Dehradun, India July-Nov 2013 Retrospective 1141 9 0.8 12–80 Blood smear/IgM, NS1 ELISA NM
25 Saksena [41] Delhi,
India
2017 Case report 1 1 NA 17 male RMAT, PCR/IgM ELISA P. vivax, P. falciparum
26 Singla [42] Chandigarh, India Jan 2011-Dec 2012 Cross sectional 300 1 0.3 NM NM/NS1 and IgM ELISA P. vivax
27 Shah [43] Ahmedabad, India June 2013-Nov 2014 Retrospective 8364 27 0.3 NM Blood smear/NS1, IgM ELISA P. vivax + DENV-17, P. falciparum + DENV-9,
P. falciparum +  P. vivax + DENV-1
28 Thangaratham [44] Alappuzha,
Kerala
2006 Case report 1 1 NM 22 Blood smear /IgM ELISA P. vivax, DENV2
29 Yasir [45] Karachi,
Pakistan
April 2013-Jan 2014 Cross sectional 159 5 3 15–53 years Blood smear /IgM ELISA NM
Africa
30 Ayorinde [46] Ogun, Nigeria April-May 2014 Cross sectional 60 1 2 All ages Blood smear, RDT, PCR/NS1, IgM and IgG ELISA P. falciparum
31 Baba [47] Nigeria July-Dec. 2008 Cross sectional 310 18 6 All ages Blood smear /PRNT P. falciparum
32 Charrel [48] France, infected in Guinea, Senegal and Sierra Leone 2004, march Case report 1 1 NA 37 Blood smear /IgM and IgG ELISA P. falciparum, DENV3
33 Chipwaza [49] Morogoro, Tanzania March–May and Aug-Oct. 2013 Cross sectional 364 31 9 2–13 Blood smear /IgM and IgG ELISA, PCR NM
34 Dariano [50] Bo, Sierra Leone 2012–2013 Cross sectional 1260 3 0.2 All ages RDTs/IgM, IgG, NS1 ELISA NM
35 Kolawole [51] Ilorin,
Nigeria
2016 Cross sectional 176 5 3 All ages RDT/IgM ELISA, PCR DENV2, DENV3, DENV4
36 Oyeoro [52] Ibadan, Nigeria Jan-April 2013 Cross sectional 188 19 10 All ages NM/IgG, IgM, NS1 ELISA NM
37 Sow [53] Kedougou, Senegal July 2009–March 2013 Cross sectional 13,845 1 0.01 All ages Blood smear, RDT/ IgM ELISA, PCR P. falciparum
38 Stolar [54] Ghana 2011–2014 Retrospective analysis 218 7 3 2–14 years RDT/IgM and IgG, ELISA, PCR P. falciparum
39 Vu [55] Kenya 2016 Cross sectional 579 33 6 1–17 years Blood smear /PCR NM
Caribbean
40 Serre [56] Spain,
Infected in Haiti
2011 Case report 1 1 NA 27 Blood smear, PCR/IgM, IgG and NS1 ELISA, PCR P. falciparum, DENV4
Southeast Asia
41 Che rahim [57] Kelantan, Malaysia 2017 Case report 1 1 NA 59 Blood smear, PCR/NS1 ELISA P. knowlesi
42 Chong [58] Malaysia 2017 Case report 1 1 NA 59 Blood smear/NS1 and IgM ELISA P. knowlesi
43 Issaranggoon [59] Thailand 2014 Case report 1 1 NA 11 Blood smear/ NS1, IgM ELISA P. falciparum
44 McGready [60] Thai-Burmese border Jan 2004-May 2006 Cross sectional 209 1 0.5 Pregnant women Blood smear/IgM ELISA, NS1 ELISA P. falciparum, P. vivax
45 Mueller [61] (Oun Kouma, Ou Chra, Snoul)
Rural Cambodia
Jan 2008- Dec 2010 Prospective observational study 1193 30 2.5 7–49 years RDT/PCR P. falciparum, P. vivax
46 Thaha [62] Surabaya, Indonesia Nov 2008 Case report 1 1 NA NM Blood smear/IgM, IgG ELISA NM
47 Ward [63] East Timor 2006 Case report 1 1 NA 7 Blood smear /IgM ELISA P. falciparum
48 Yong [64] Riau Island Indonesia 2012 Case report 1 1 NA 49 Blood smear/IgM, NS1 ELISA P. falciparum
South America
49 Carme [65] French Guiana July 2004-June 2005 Retrospective analysis 1723 17 1 NM Blood smear/PCR, IgM ELISA, virus isolation P. vivax − 14, P. falciparum- 3, DENV3–5, DENV1–1, NM-11
50 Epelboin [66] French Guiana 2004–2010 Retrospective matched pair study NM 104 NA All ages Blood smear/PCR, NS1, IgM, IgA ELISA P. vivax – 80, P. falciparum – 21, P. vivax + P. falciparum – 3, DENV1–3, DENV2–2, DENV3–5, NM-94
51 Lupi [67] Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Apr 2013 Case report 1 1 NA 52 Blood smear, RDT, PCR/ IgM and NS1 ELISA, PCR P. ovale wallikeri
52 Magalhaes [68] Brazilian Amazon
Manaus
Brazil
March 2009 to April 2010 Retrospective study 132 11 8 Mean age, 42.7 yrs Blood smear, PCR/NS1 ELISA, PCR P. vivax DENV2, DENV3, DENV4
53 Magalhaes [69] Brazilian Amazon
Manaus
Brazil
2009–2011 Cross-sectional 1578 44 3 All ages Blood smear, PCR/ NS1 ELISA, PCR P. vivax
54 Mendonca [70] Brazilian Amazon
Manaus
Brazil
2009–2013 Prospective observational study All febrile patients 30 NA 31.11 median age Blood smear, PCR/ IgM and NS1 ELISA P. vivax, DENV4–8, DENV3–1, DENV2–18, DENV1–3
55 Santana [71] Novo Repartimento (Pará), Brazil May 2003 to August 2005 Cross sectional 111 2 2 >  18 years Blood smear/PCR P. vivax, DENV2
  1. N – sample size, ML/DN - Malaria/Dengue coinfection, ELISA - Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, NS1 - Dengue non-structural protein − 1, PCR - Polymerase Chain reaction, RDT - rapid diagnostic test, PRNT - Plaque reduction neutralisation test, RMAT - Rapaid malaria antigen test, NM - not mentioned, NA - not applicable