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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and employment status based on levels of perceived stress (N = 9335)

From: Perceived stress as a risk factor of unemployment: a register-based cohort study

Variables 1 – Low stress
(n = 1565)a
2
(n = 1753)a
3
(n = 2088)a
4
(n = 1783)a
5 - High stress
(n = 2146)a
Total
(n = 9335)
p-value
Baseline
Gender
 Women 661 (42.2) 803 (45.8) 1027 (49.2) 884 (49.6) 1192 (55.5) 4567 (48.9) < 0.01
Age (years)
 18–25 87 (5.6) 101 (5.8) 133 (6.4) 127 (7.1) 189 (8.8) 637 (6.8)  
 26–54 1036 (66.2) 1222 (69.7) 1466 (70.2) 1288 (72.2) 1529 (71.2) 6541 (70.1)  
 55–64 442 (28.2) 430 (24.5) 489 (23.4) 368 (20.6) 428 (19.9) 2157 (23.1) < 0.01
Education levelb
 Basic 359 (22.9) 397 (22.6) 444 (21.3) 424 (23.8) 637 (29.7) 2261 (24.2)  
 Vocational 673 (43.0) 744 (42.4) 971 (46.5) 828 (46.4) 961 (44.8) 4177 (44.7)  
 Higher 533 (34.1) 612 (34.9) 673 (32.2) 531 (29.8) 548 (25.5) 2897 (31.0) < 0.01
Household incomec
 1: < 44,763 324 (20.7) 397 (22.6) 498 (23.9) 453 (25.4) 661 (30.8) 2333 (25.0)  
 2: 44,763–55,978 345 (22.0) 428 (24.4) 529 (25.3) 475 (26.6) 558 (26.0) 2335 (25.0)  
 3: 55,979–67,524 385 (24.6) 429 (24.5) 538 (25.8) 450 (25.2) 532 (24.8) 2334 (25.0)  
 4: > 67,524 511 (32.7) 499 (28.5) 523 (25.0) 405 (22.7) 395 (18.4) 2333 (25.0) < 0.01
Smoking
 Non smoker 865 (55.6) 908 (52.2) 1095 (52.8) 896 (50.6) 1019 (47.8) 4783 (51.6)  
 Former smoker 423 (27.2) 448 (25.7) 554 (26.7) 479 (27.1) 557 (26.1) 2461 (26.5)  
 Current smoker 269 (17.3) 385 (22.1) 424 (20.5) 395 (22.3) 556 (26.1) 2029 (21.9) < 0.01
 missing 8 12 15 13 14 62  
Body Mass Index
 Underweight 18 (1.2) 21 (1.2) 17 (0.8) 21 (1.2) 34 (1.6) 111 (1.2)  
 Normal weight 699 (45.4) 795 (46.0) 944 (45.7) 799 (45.3) 962 (45.7) 4199 (45.6)  
 Overweight 605 (39.3) 668 (38.7) 815 (39.4) 677 (38.4) 742 (35.2) 3507 (38.1)  
 Obesity 219 (14.2) 244 (14.1) 290 (14.0) 266 (15.1) 369 (17.5) 1388 (15.1) 0.024
 missing 24 25 22 20 39 130  
Alcohol consumption
 Low 1331 (95.1) 1461 (93.2) 1730 (94.2) 1473 (92.9) 1715 (92.4) 7710 (93.5)  
 High 69 (4.9) 107 (6.8) 107 (5.8) 113 (7.1) 141 (7.6) 537 (6.5) 0.017
 missing 165 185 251 197 290 1088  
Self-rated health
 Good 1538 (98.7) 1715 (98.3) 2039 (97.9) 1692 (95.4) 1882 (88.4) 8866 (95.5)  
 Poor 21 (1.3) 29 (1.7) 44 (2.1) 81 (4.6) 247 (11.6) 422 (4.5) < 0.01
 missing 6 9 5 10 17 47  
Outcome:
Employment statusd
 Employed 1369 (87.5) 1537 (87.7) 1834 (87.8) 1553 (87.1) 1817 (84.7) 8110 (86.9)  
 Censorede 112 (7.2) 100 (5.7) 115 (5.5) 85 (4.8) 105 (4.9) 517 (5.5)  
 Unemployed 84 (5.4) 116 (6.6) 139 (6.7) 145 (8.1) 224 (10.4) 708 (7.6) < 0.01
 - No sickness absence 78 (92.9) 100 (86.2) 120 (86.3) 130 (89.7) 189 (84.4) 617 (87.1)  
 - Sickness absence 6 (7.1) 16 (13.8) 19 (13.7) 15 (10.3) 35 (15.6) 91 (12.9) 0.290
  1. aPSS-scores at baseline: 1 – Low stress: 0–5, 2: 6–8, 3: 9–11, 4: 12–14 and 5 – High stress: 15–40
  2. bBasic: ISCED level 0–3; early childhood education, primary education, lower secondary education and general upper secondary education. Vocational: ISCED level 3; vocational upper secondary education. Higher: ISCED level 5–8; bachelor’s, master’s and doctor or equivalent level
  3. cDivided into quartiles (Euro). Exchange rate: 1 Euro = 7.4396 Danish Kroner, 30th May 2017
  4. dAnalysis of 18–64-year-old employed non-respondents of the PSS in the North Denmark Health Profile 2010 (N = 4809): Employed: 3980 (82.8%). Censored: 262 (5.5%). Unemployed: 567 (11.8%)
  5. ePeople who retired, received benefit due to reduced ability to work, emigrated or died