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Table 3 Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socio-economic characteristics

From: Prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural Nepalese population aged 40–80 years

Characteristics Current Smoking Harmful use of alcohol Fruit/Vegetable< 5 servings Physical inactivity Overweight and obesity Hypertension Diabetes mellitus TC (> 200 mg/dl) TG(> 150 mg/dl) HDL (M < 40, F < 50 mg/dl) LDL(> 130 mg/dl) Dyslipidemia
Level of education
 No formal education 25.9 6.5 73.0 10.8 54.6 41.6 15.1 15.7 23.8 37.8 10.8 56.8
 Primary 25.7 21.4 75.7 8.6 67.1 50 8.6 12.9 21.4 18.6 7.1 47.1
  ≥ Secondary 18.9 11.1 66.7 10 63.3 40 24.4 23.3 38.9 22.2 12.2 61.1
 P value 0.41 0.003 0.401 0.868 0.129 0.392 0.02 0.16 0.01 0.002 0.56 0.19
Caste/ ethnicity
 Upper cast 21.8 8.3 72.2 11.3 48.9 39.8 13.5 21.8 28.6 27.1 12 59.4
 Dalit 42.9 28.6 76.2 9.5 66.7 52.4 19.0 0.0 14.3 19.0 4.8 33.3
 Janajati 23.6 10.5 71.2 9.4 66.0 44.0 17.8 15.7 27.7 33.0 9.9 56.0
 P value 0.108 0.02 0.886 0.858 0.007 0.505 0.55 0.03 0.38 0.27 0.56 0.08
Occupation
 Employ 22.5 12.5 67.5 7.5 52.5 30.0 22.5 22.5 42.5 17.5 10.0 65.0
 Self employed 16.7 12.8 75.6 14.1 65.4 48.7 7.7 19.2 29.5 29.5 11.5 53.8
 Unemployed 26.0 8.0 72.5 10.5 57.0 41.0 17.0 14.5 23.0 35.5 9.5 55.5
 Retired 33.3 22.2 63.0 0.0 70.4 59.3 25.9 22.2 29.6 7.4 14.8 51.9
 P value 0.254 0.124 0.567 0.193 0.287 0.071 0.06 0.47 0.07 0.006 0.83 0.64
Economic status
 Above poverty line 10.0 30.0 70.0 10.0 50.0 50.0 30.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 10.0 40.0
 Poor 24.5 10.1 71.9 10.1 59.7 42.7 31.3 17 27.5 30.1 10.4 56.4
 P value 0.291 0.046 0.893 0.988 0.538 0.645 0.58 0.8 0.6 0.49 0.96 0.3
  1. TC Total cholesterol, TG Triglyceride, HDL High-density Lipoprotein, LDL Low-density Lipoprotein