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Table 2 Associations between no birth certificate and children’s HAZ, WAZ, WHZ, and ECDI z-scores among children aged 36–59 months

From: Associations between birth registration and early child growth and development: evidence from 31 low- and middle-income countries

Child outcomes Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
HAZ (n = 50,291)
 β of no birth certificate −0.48*** −0.26*** − 0.21*** −0.18***
 95% CI (−0.52, − 0.43) (− 0.30, − 0.22) (−0.25, − 0.17) (−0.23, − 0.14)
WAZ (n = 50,531)
 β of no birth certificate − 0.30*** −0.15*** − 0.11*** −0.10***
 95% CI (−0.33, − 0.27) (− 0.18, − 0.11) (−0.14, − 0.08) (−0.13, − 0.07)
WHZ (n = 50,178)
 β of no birth certificate − 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02
 95% CI (−0.04, 0.03) (−0.01, 0.06) (− 0.00, 0.07) (− 0.01, 0.06)
ECDI z-score (n = 54,861)
 β of no birth certificate − 0.32*** −0.15*** − 0.10*** −0.10***
 95% CI (−0.34, − 0.29) (− 0.18, − 0.13) (−0.13, − 0.08) (−0.13, − 0.07)
  1. CI confidence interval, ECDI Early Childhood Development Index, HAZ height-for-age z-scores, WAZ weight-for-age z-scores, WHZ weight-for-height z-scores
  2. The table presents unweighted standardized mean differences in child growth and development outcomes for children aged 36–59 months in 31 countries who did not have a birth certificate. Model 1 only adjusted for child age, sex, and country-level fixed effects. Model 2 further adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, paternal education, household wealth quintiles, and urban/rural residency. Model 3 additionally adjusted for vaccinations and attendance in an early childhood education program. Model 4 additionally adjusted for primary sampling unit-level fixed effects. All standard errors were clustered at the primary sampling unit level. ***P-value < 0.001