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Table 1 Full sample characteristics among children aged 0–59 months and by children’s birth certificate ownership

From: Associations between birth registration and early child growth and development: evidence from 31 low- and middle-income countries

  Total (n = 157,336) Child does not have birth certificate (n = 54,605) Child has birth certificate (n = 102,731)
% (95% CI) % (95% CI) % (95% CI)
Covariates
 Female child 49.1 (48.9–49.4) 49.6 (49.2–50.0) 48.8 (48.5–49.1)
 Age of child, mean (SD), range 0–59 months 28.0 (16.7) 25.3 (16.4) 29.4 (16.6)
 Maternal education
  None 28.5 (27.9–29.1) 41.4 (40.4–42.4) 21.6 (21.1–22.2)
  Primary 33.1 (32.7–33.6) 36.7 (35.9–37.4) 31.2 (30.7–31.8)
  Secondary or higher 38.4 (37.8–39.0) 21.9 (21.2–22.6) 47.1 (46.5–47.8)
 Paternal education
  None 18.4 (17.9–18.9) 28.3 (27.3–29.2) 13.2 (12.7–13.6)
  Primary 30.7 (30.3–31.2) 35.4 (34.6–36.1) 28.3 (27.8–28.8)
  Secondary or higher 50.8 (50.3–51.4) 36.4 (35.5–37.2) 58.5 (58.0–59.1)
 Martial status
  Currently married/in union 99.8 (99.7–99.8) 99.7 (99.7–99.8) 99.8 (99.8–99.8)
  Formerly married/in union 0.1 (0.1–0.1) 0.2 (0.1–0.2) 0.1 (0.1–0.1)
  Never married/in union 0.1 (0.1–0.1) 0.1 (0.1–0.2) 0.1 (0.1–0.1)
 Maternal age
  15–19 4.1 (4.0–4.2) 6.0 (5.7–6.2) 3.1 (3.0–3.2)
  20–24 19.6 (19.3–19.9) 23.0 (22.5–23.4) 17.8 (17.5–18.2)
  25–29 28.2 (27.9–28.5) 27.4 (27.0–27.9) 28.6 (28.2–28.9)
  30–34 23.2 (22.9–23.5) 20.5 (20.1–20.9) 24.7 (24.3–25.0)
  35–39 15.8 (15.6–16.1) 14.2 (13.8–14.6) 16.7 (16.4–17.0)
  40–44 7.1 (7.0–7.3) 6.6 (6.4–6.9) 7.4 (7.2–7.6)
  45–49 2.0 (1.9–2.0) 2.3 (2.2–2.5) 1.8 (1.7–1.9)
 Wealth quintile    
  Poorest 18.7 (18.2–19.2) 22.4 (21.7–23.1) 16.8 (16.2–17.3)
  Poor 20 (19.6–20.3) 23.4 (22.8–24.0) 18.1 (17.7–18.5)
  Middle 19.6 (19.3–19.9) 21.4 (20.9–22.0) 18.6 (18.2–19.0)
  Rich 19.8 (19.5–20.2) 17.9 (17.3–18.5) 20.8 (20.4–21.3)
  Richest 21.9 (21.4–22.4) 14.8 (14.2–15.5) 25.7 (25.1–26.2)
 Rural residence 60.2 (59.4–61.0) 78.4 (77.3–79.5) 50.6 (49.6–51.5)
 Number of vaccines child received, mean (SD), range 0–4 3.4 (0.8) 3.3 (0.9) 3.4 (0.8)
 Child currently attends ECE, among children aged 36–59 months 24.5 (23.9–25.0) 16.3 (15.4–17.1) 27.5 (26.9–28.2)
Child outcomes
 HAZ, mean (SD) −1.01 (1.7) −1.49 (1.7) −0.75 (1.7)
 WAZ, mean (SD) −0.58 (1.4) −1.05 (1.4) − 0.32 (1.3)
 WHZ, mean (SD) −0.01 (1.4) − 0.29 (1.4) 0.15 (1.5)
 ECDI z-scores among children aged 36–59 months, mean (SD) 0.00 (1.0) −0.34 (0.9) 0.18 (1.0)
  1. CI confidence interval, ECE early childhood education, ECDI Early Childhood Development Index, HAZ height-for-age z-scores, SD standard deviation, WAZ weight-for-age z-scores, WHZ weight-for-height z-scores