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Table 3 Results of multiple logistic regression models showing significant associations between parent and child characteristics for each parent feeding practice

From: Relationships between parent feeding behaviors and parent and child characteristics in Brazilian preschoolers: a cross-sectional study

Variables Risk Category Negative/Non-nutritive feeding practices Positive feeding practices
   Restriction for Weight Control (RWC)
(n = 399)
Restriction for Health (RH)
(n = 402)
Pressure (P)
(n = 395)
Emotion Regulation/Food as Reward (ER/FR)
(n = 402)
Healthy Eating Guidance (HEG)
(n = 396)
Monitoring (M)
(n = 401)
OR (CI 95%)
Parent characteristics
 Mother education <college complete 2.42 (1.07–5.48) 2.79 (1.25–6.22) 2.22 (1.05–4.71)
 Mother BMIa 0.94 (0.88–1.00)   1.09 (1.03–1.16)
 Perceived responsibility for child feeding Never/seldom/
half of the time
1.68 (1.12–2.52)
 Concern about child overweight Concerned/
fairly concerned/
very concerned
2.46 (1.64–3.69)
 Concern about child underweight Fairly concerned/
very concerned
2.30 (1.53–3.47)
Child characteristics
 Ultra-processed food intake Frequent consumption 1.94 (1.27–2.97)
 Traditional food intake Infrequent consumption 1.53 (1.01–2.32)
 Screen time (per day) > 2 h 1.59 (1.04–2.44) 1.57 (1.03–2.39)
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, p p-value. All models adjusted for child sex. Risk categories defined as follows. HEG: < 87.50; M: < 98.75; RWC: > 25.00; RH: > 70.00; P: > 62.50; ER/FR: > 12.50
  2. aMother BMI as continuous variable