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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients (n = 147,003)

From: Public rental housing and its association with mortality – a retrospective, cohort study

Characteristics All Patients
(n = 147,004)
Patients who died (n = 7251) Patients who were alive (n = 139,752) P-value#
Patient demographics
 Age, Mean (SD) 50.2 (17.2) 63.9 (16.2) 50.1 (17.2) < 0.001
 Gender, Male (%) 62,171 (42.3%) 4030 (54.8%) 58,141 (41.6%) < 0.001
 Ethnicity     < 0.001
 Chinese (%) 115,456 (78.5%) 6212 (85.7%) 109,244 (78.2%)  
 Indian (%) 11,263 (7.7%) 439 (6.1%) 10,824 (7.8%)  
 Malay (%) 14,582 (9.9%) 535 (7.4%) 14,047 (10.1%)  
 Others (%) 5804 (5.9%) 167 (2.3%) 5637 (4.0%)  
Social Determinants of Health
 Resided in Public rental housing (%) 10,400 (7.1%) 1162 (16.0%) 9238 (6.6%) < 0.001
Past 1-year Healthcare Utilization during first year of inclusion
 Public Primary Care Clinic visits, Mean (SD) 2.45 (4.16) 4.08 (7.14) 2.45 (4.15) < 0.001
 ED visits, Mean (SD) 0.15 (0.72) 2.87 (4.81) 0.14 (0.67) < 0.001
 Specialist Clinic visits, Mean (SD) 2.50 (5.65) 12.90 (16.50) 2.48 (5.59) < 0.001
 Hospital admissions, Mean (SD) 0.12 (0.54) 2.79 (3.75) 0.11 (0.50) < 0.001
Medical Comorbiditiesa
 Diabetes without complications (%) 20,808 (14.1%) 2605 (35.4%) 18,203 (13.0%) < 0.001
 Hypertension (%) 43,057 (29.3%) 4802 (65.3%) 38,255 (27.4%) < 0.001
 Hyperlipidaemia (%) 42,437 (28.8%) 4090 (55.6%) 38,347 (17.9%) < 0.001
 Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 3–4 (%) 4614 (3.1%) 1255 (17.1%) 3359 (2.4%) < 0.001
 Asthma (%) 4958 (3.4%) 359 (4.9%) 4599 (3.3%) < 0.001
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (%) 3085 (2.1%) 681 (9.3%) 2404 (1.7%) < 0.001
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with cor pulmonale (%) 2574 (1.8%) 548 (7.5%) 2026 (1.5%) < 0.001
 Osteoarthritis (%) 16,787 (11.4%) 1186 (16.1%) 15,601 (11.2%) < 0.001
 Diabetes with complications (%) 2169 (1.5%) 434 (5.9%) 1735 (1.2%) < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular accident (%) 5173 (3.5%) 1355 (18.4%) 3818 (2.7%) < 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease stage V or End-stage renal failure (%) 1807 (1.2%) 827 (11.2%) 980 (0.7%) < 0.001
 Depression (%) 2810 (1.9%) 303 (4.1%) 2507 (1.8%) < 0.001
 Schizophrenia (%) 561 (0.4%) 108 (1.5%) 453 (0.3%) < 0.001
 Dementia (%) 513 (0.4%) 268 (3.6%) 245 (0.2%) < 0.001
 Collagen vascular disease (%) 517 (0.4%) 102 (1.4%) 415 (0.3%) < 0.001
 Parkinson disease (%) 481 (0.3%) 185 (2.5%) 296 (0.2%) < 0.001
 Epilepsy (%) 715 (0.5%) 138 (1.9%) 577 (0.4%) < 0.001
 Coronary heart disease (%) 9509 (6.5%) 2035 (27.7%) 7474 (5.3%) < 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 1286 (0.9%) 479 (6.5%) 807 (0.6%) < 0.001
 Heart failure (%) 2196 (1.5%) 910 (12.4%) 1286 (0.9%) < 0.001
 Peripheral vascular disease (%) 1124 (0.8%) 355 (4.8%) 769 (0.6%) < 0.001
 Hip fracture (%) 279 (0.2%) 113 (1.5%) 166 (0.1%) < 0.001
 Spine fracture (%) 452 (0.3%) 125 (1.7%) 327 (0.2%) < 0.001
 Chronic liver disease (%) 1074 (0.7%) 225 (3.1%) 849 (0.6%) < 0.001
 Pressure ulcer (%) 243 (0.2%) 145 (2.0%) 98 (0.07%) < 0.001
 Malignancy (%) 4893 (3.3%) 1297 (17.6%) 3596 (2.6%) < 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, ED emergency department, ICD international classification of diseases
  2. #Continuous variables were analyzed using Student’s -test and categorical variables were analysed using chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test when appropriate
  3. aBased on ICD codes in the preceding five years