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Table 3 Correlates of HIV status non-disclosure among HIV-infected mothers with current male partners (n = 420)a

From: Prevalence and correlates of non-disclosure of maternal HIV status to male partners: a national survey in Kenya

  Univariate Multivariateb
Characteristic OR (95% CI) p-value aOR (95% CI)b p-value
Maternal characteristics
Age (years)   0.95 (0.89–1.02) 0.137   
Unmarried/not cohabiting 1.56 (0.33–7.41) 0.572   
Duration of relationship (years) 0.91 (0.84–0.98) 0.017* 0.90 (0.82–0.98) 0.015*
Education None ref    
  Primary 1.31 (0.40–4.30) 0.653   
  Secondary 1.63 (0.46–5.78) 0.447   
  > Secondary 1.67 (1.41–6.74) 0.470   
Employment Salaried ref   ref  
Self employed 4.18 (0.49–35.51) 0.188 4.11 (0.47–35.77) 0.198
Housewife 5.67 (0.71–45.23) 0.100 5.07 (0.65–39.52) 0.120
Unemployed 10.47 (1.20–91.31) 0.034* 9.19 (1.06–79.41) 0.044
KSH ≤ 5000 income/month 0.61 (0.26–1.47) 0.269   
IPV (from current male partner)c 1.08 (0.49–2.38) 0.853   
Current male partner characteristics
Partner age (years) 0.97 (0.92–1.02) 0.209   
Partner education None ref    
Primary 0.29 (0.08–1.03) 0.056   
Secondary 0.40 (0.11–1.45) 0.163   
> Secondary 0.44 (0.10–2.03) 0.290   
Partner employment Unemployed ref   ref  
Self employed 0.59 (0.28–1.25) 0.165 0.61 (0.30–1.24) 0.169
Salaried 0.43 (0.20–0.93) 0.033* 0.42 (0.18–0.96) 0.039
Partner tested for HIV   0.69 (0.26–1.81) 0.445   
Partner HIV statusd HIV-uninfected ref    
  HIV-infected 0.46 (0.17–1.24) 0.124   
  Unknown    
Obstetric history
Number of living children 0.89 (0.69–1.16) 0.405   
≥4 ANC visitse 0.65 (0.37–1.15) 0.139   
Partner did not attend ANCe 2.65 (1.29–5.43) 0.009* 2.62 (1.28–5.35) 0.009*
Health facility deliverye 1.10 (0.48–2.54) 0.823   
HIV-related characteristics
CD4 testing uptake 0.29 (0.14–0.59) 0.001* 0.32 (0.15–0.69) 0.004
CD4 results received 0.49 (0.22–1.10) 0.084   
Currently on HAART for own health 0.39 (0.21–0.74) 0.005* 0.51 (0.25–1.04) 0.063
Maternal ARV use
 During pregnancy 0.42 (0.16–1.10) 0.078   
 During labour 0.25 (0.11–0.53) < 0.001* 0.38 (0.15–0.97) 0.042
 During breastfeeding 0.30 (0.15–0.62) < 0.001* 0.50 (0.22–1.14) 0.096
Infant received PCR testing 0.56 (0.31–1.01) 0.053* 0.60 (0.32–1.09) 0.093
Infant ARV use 0.08 (0.03–0.22) < 0.001* 0.08 (0.02–0.31) < 0.001
  1. SD standard deviation, IPV intimate partner violence, ANC antenatal care, OR odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. aMissing data not shown; all models adjusted for clinic-level clustering
  3. bMultivariate models adjusted for marital status, relationship length, and partner ANC attendance
  4. cIPV defined as having a score ≥ 10.5 on HITS scale
  5. dAmong male partners who were tested for HIV
  6. eDuring the most recent pregnancy
  7. *highlights factors were significantly different in univariate analysis