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Table 3 Odds ratio of NHIS enrolment among older adults

From: Universal health coverage in the context of population ageing: What determines health insurance enrolment in rural Ghana?

  Age: 50–69 (N = 4086) Age: 70 plus (N = 1760)
Variable Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI Odds ratio 95% CI
Hospital in community
 No 1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Yes 4.27 ** 1.50 12.10 2.92 * 1.04 8.17 2.98 * 1.07 8.32 2.60   0.71 9.59 2.45   0.68 8.84 2.18   2.18 7.86
Clinic in community
 No 1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Yes 2.06 *** 1.39 3.05 1.86 ** 1.26 2.74 1.80 ** 1.23 2.65 2.70 *** 1.56 4.65 2.43 ** 1.43 4.13 2.43 ** 1.42 4.16
Motorable road passes through community
 No 1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Yes 2.72 *** 1.58 4.67 2.51 ** 1.47 4.29 2.31 ** 1.35 3.96 4.44 *** 2.12 9.30 3.77 *** 1.84 7.69 3.72 *** 1.81 7.66
Region
 Upper West 1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00     1.00    
 Western 0.24 ** 0.11 0.54 0.10 *** 0.04 0.23 0.05 *** 0.02 0.15 0.14 ** 0.05 0.43 0.06 *** 0.02 0.22 0.02 *** 0.00 0.08
 Central 0.08 *** 0.03 0.18 0.04 *** 0.02 0.10 0.02 *** 0.01 0.06 0.19 ** 0.06 0.58 0.07 *** 0.02 0.25 0.02 *** 0.00 0.08
 Greater Accra 0.15 * 0.03 0.73 0.06 ** 0.01 0.31 0.03 *** 0.01 0.19 0.50   0.07 3.54 0.19   0.03 1.35 0.12   0.01 1.10
 Volta 0.36 ** 0.18 0.73 0.18 *** 0.08 0.38 0.10 *** 0.03 0.26 0.39 * 0.16 0.92 0.22 ** 0.09 0.55 0.11 ** 0.03 0.43
 Eastern 0.23 *** 0.11 0.47 0.14 *** 0.06 0.30 0.07 *** 0.03 0.19 0.49   0.19 1.21 0.25 ** 0.09 0.66 0.10 ** 0.03 0.37
 Ashanti 0.54   0.25 1.15 0.26 ** 0.12 0.58 0.15 *** 0.06 0.41 0.61   0.22 1.69 0.28 * 0.10 0.83 0.08 *** 0.02 0.32
 Brong Ahafo 0.60   0.28 1.30 0.34 ** 0.16 0.76 0.23 ** 0.10 0.56 1.50   0.52 4.28 0.91   0.32 2.60 0.42   0.12 1.38
 Northern 0.07 *** 0.03 0.16 0.07 *** 0.03 0.15 0.07 *** 0.03 0.17 0.12 *** 0.04 0.35 0.11 *** 0.04 0.32 0.14 *** 0.05 0.42
 Upper East 0.87   0.44 1.72 0.67   0.34 1.32 0.72   0.37 1.41 0.83   0.35 1.93 0.63   0.27 1.47 0.73   0.31 1.72
Expenditure
 Poorest      1.00     1.00         1.00     1.00    
 Poor      1.56 * 1.05 2.32 1.50 * 1.00 2.24      1.70   0.98 2.93 1.72   0.98 3.00
 Middle      2.58 *** 1.65 4.03 2.29 *** 1.46 3.59      2.10 * 1.13 3.91 2.02 * 1.07 3.79
 Rich      3.53 *** 2.19 5.70 3.04 *** 1.88 4.93      3.06 ** 1.57 5.98 2.60 ** 1.33 5.08
 Richest      9.63 *** 5.58 16.64 7.42 *** 4.28 12.88      4.09 *** 1.87 8.95 3.73 ** 1.69 8.23
Employment status of head
 Employee public      1.00     1.00         1.00     1.00    
 Employee private      0.11 *** 0.04 0.27 0.16 *** 0.06 0.42      0.35   0.06 1.98 0.27   0.04 1.60
 Self employed      1.30   0.17 9.89 1.33   0.17 10.49      1.57   0.09 26.77 0.77   0.04 14.29
 Other inactive      0.16 *** 0.06 0.43 0.22 ** 0.08 0.61      0.49   0.08 2.88 0.39   0.06 2.40
Internet access
 No      1.00     1.00         1.00     1.00    
 Yes      0.73   0.45 1.20 0.72   0.44 1.20      1.69   0.87 3.27 1.47   0.74 2.93
Household size
 Log      1.45 *** 1.18 1.78 1.42 ** 1.14 1.77      0.79   0.60 1.05 0.79   0.59 1.07
Sex
 Male          1.00             1.00    
 Female          2.04 *** 1.58 2.64          1.86 ** 1.18 2.94
Education
 None          1.00             1.00    
 Primary          1.23   0.91 1.67          0.76   0.45 1.30
 Secondary and higher          3.10 ** 1.58 6.10          3.33   0.48 23.28
Marital Status
 Married          1.00             1.00    
 Never married/Separated/Divorced          0.61 * 0.39 0.96          0.25 ** 0.11 0.57
 Widowed          0.89   0.62 1.28          0.48 ** 0.28 0.81
Disability
 No          1.00             1.00    
 Yes          0.89   0.49 1.60          0.47 * 0.26 0.86
Religion
 None          1.00             1.00    
 Christian          1.97 ** 1.22 3.18          2.17 * 1.09 4.31
 Muslim          1.47   0.86 2.52          1.38   0.67 2.83
Ethnicity
 Akan          1.00             1.00    
 Ga-Dangme          0.97   0.44 2.12          0.24 * 0.07 0.83
 Ewe          1.00   0.50 2.02          0.56   0.18 1.70
 Guan          1.11   0.48 2.55          0.24 * 0.07 0.81
 Gurma          0.53   0.23 1.21          0.11 *** 0.03 0.36
 Mole-Dagbani          0.47 * 0.23 0.92          0.15 ** 0.05 0.46
 Other          0.76   0.34 1.68          0.27 * 0.08 0.88
Random effects
 Between household variance 4.64   3.17 6.78 3.96   2.64 5.94 4.02   2.68 6.03 3.77   1.69 8.40 3.50   1.52 8.05 3.52   1.52 8.15
 Between community variance 2.44   1.74 3.42 2.44   1.74 3.42 2.35   1.67 3.32 2.48   1.36 4.53 2.30   1.25 4.23 2.24   1.19 4.19
Variance partition coefficient
Household 0.45 0.41 0.42 0.40 0.39 0.39
Community 0.24 0.25 0.24 0.26 0.25 0.25
  1. ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01 *p < 0.05