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Table 4 Association of socio-demographic, maternal, pregnancy and delivery related variables with Cesarean section deliveries using multiple logistic regression

From: High prevalence of cesarean section births in private sector health facilities- analysis of district level household survey-4 (DLHS-4) of India

Variables Categories Total Delivered by C section  
   N = 17,934 (% of total) n = 4160 (% of N) Odds ratio (95% CI)
Socio-demographic and maternal
 Age of Mother < = 19 Years 405 (2.26) 75 (1.80) 1.38 (0.76-2.50)
20 - 24 Years 6070 (33.85) 1196 (28.75) 1.19 (0.97-1.45)
> = 35 Years 1093 (6.09) 313 (7.52) 1.2 (0.81-1.76)
25 - 34 Years 10,366 (57.8) 2576 (61.92) 1
 Residence Urban 7288 (40.64) 2086 (50.14) 1.15 (1.00-1.35)
Rural 10,646 (59.36) 2074 (49.86) 1
 Wealth index Fourth 3517 (19.62) 1538 (36.97) 1.19 (1.01-1.57)
Third 4455 (24.85) 1284 (30.87) 1.08 (0.83-1.42)
Second 4862 (27.12) 880 (21.15) 1.32 (1.01-1.73)
First quartile 5096 (28.42) 458 (11.01) 1
 Caste Others 9895 (55.17) 2701 (64.93) 1.07 (0.90-1.26)
ST/SC 7083 (39.49) 1226 (29.47) 1
 Maternal education Any Schooling 15,328 (85.47) 3832 (92.12) 1.01 (0.74-1.36)
No Schooling 2604 (14.52) 328 (7.88) 1
 Age at first delivery > = 35 Years 94 (0.52) 50 (1.20) 5.51 (1.85-16.40)
25 - 34 Years 3529 (19.68) 1243 (29.88) 2.49 (1.87-3.32)
20 - 24 Years 9137 (50.95) 2084 (50.10) 1.43 (1.15-1.77)
< = 19 Years 5170 (28.83) 783 (18.82) 1
Antenatal care related
 4 + ANC Yes 11,271 (62.85) 3035 (72.96) 1.23 (1.00-1.49)
No 4162 (23.21) 749 (18) 1
 Received abdomen check + BP check+ Blood Test + Urine Test at least once No 1904 (10.62) 245 (5.89) 1.28 (0.68-2.39)
Yes 16,019 (89.32) 3913 (94.06) 1
 USG done Yes 12,459 (69.47) 3360 (80.77) 1.37 (1.09-1.74)
No 5464 (30.47) 798 (19.18) 1
Complications during pregnancy
 Weak or no movement of foetus Yes 377 (2.1) 104 (2.5) 1.01 (0.74-1.36)
No 17,555 (97.89) 4055 (97.48) 1
 Abnormal position of fetus Yes 244 (1.36) 65 (1.56) 1.11 (0.75-1.66)
No 17,688 (98.63) 4094 (98.41) 1
 High BP Yes 812 (4.53) 285 (6.85) 1.32 (1.06-1.65)
No 17,120 (95.46) 3874 (93.13) 1
 Bleeding Yes 195 (1.09) 52 (26.67) 1.24 (0.83-1.87)
No 17,737 (98.9) 4107 (23.15) 1
Delivery complications
 Convulsion Yes 600 (3.35) 230 (5.53) 1.15 (0.84-1.58)
No 17,330 (96.63) 3930 (94.47) 1
 Excessive bleeding Yes 16,991 (94.74) 3939 (94.69) 1.55 (1.17-2.04)
No 939 (5.24) 221 (5.31) 1
 Prolonged labour Yes 16,449 (91.72) 3764 (90.48) 1.05 (0.83-1.35)
No 1481 (8.26) 396 (9.52) 1
 Obstructed labour Yes 16,141 (90) 3721 (89.45) 1.41 (1.11-1.78)
No 1789 (9.98) 439 (10.55) 1
 Breach presentation Yes 435 (2.43) 192 (4.62) 2.37(1.63-3.43)
No 17,495 (97.55) 3968 (95.38)  
Place of delivery
 Place of Delivery Private 7054 (39.33) 2674 (64.28) 3.79 (3.06-4.72)
Public 10,880 (60.67) 1486 (35.72) 1