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Table 1 Factors associated with the spread of pneumococcal meningitis, BAR, 2016

From: Pneumococcal meningitis outbreak and associated factors in six districts of Brong Ahafo region, Ghana, 2016

Factor Cases (n = 40) Controls (n = 80) cOR (95% CI) P-Value aOR (95% CI)  
Sex
 Male 11(23.4) 36(73.6) 1.0   1.0  
 Female 31(38.7) 49(61.3) 2.1(0.9-4.7)) 0.08** 4.9(0.9-26.4) 0.06
Age group (yrs)
  ≥ 19 16(69.6) 7(30.4) 1.0   1.0  
 20-39 14(24.1) 44(75.9) 0.1(0.1-0.4) < 0.001* 0.5(0.1-5.5) 0.57
  ≥ 40 12(26.1) 34(73.9) 0.2(0.1-0.5) < 0.01* 0.8(0.1-12.1) 0.89
Occupation
 Student 17(56.7) 13(43.3) 1.0   1.0  
 Farming 20(29.0) 49(71.0) 0.3 (0.2-0.8) 0.01* 0.3(0.1-3.4) 0.36
 Other 5(17.9) 23(82.1) 0.2 (0.1-0.5) < 0.01* 0.2(0.01-5.4) 0.36
Education
 None 16(33.3) 32(66.7) 1.0   1.0  
 Primary 21(47.7) 23(52.3) 1.8(0.8-4.2) 1.00 2.1(0.4-10.6) 0.38
 Other 3(9.7) 28(90.3) 0.2(0.1-0.9) 0.02* 0.1(0.01-1.5) 0.08
Religion
 Christian 36(32.2) 74(67.3) 1.0   1.0  
 Muslim 5(31.3) 11(68.8) 0.9(0.3-2.9) 0.91 1.4(0.4-4.5) 0.55
Travel history
 No travel 15(26.8) 41(73.2) 1.0   1.0  
 Travelled within last 3 weeks 26(37.7) 43(62.3) 1.7 (0.7 – 3.6) 0.19** 1.8(0.5-7.3) 0.38
Cough history
 No cough 16(29.6) 38(70.4) 1.0   1.0  
 Had cough 7(41.2) 10(58.8) 1.7(0.5-5.1) 0.38 2.0(0.5-6.4) 0.33
Sore throat history
 No sore throat 17(26.1) 48(73.9} 1.0   1.0  
 Had sore throat 10(62.5) 6(37.5) 4.7(1.3-15.9) < 0.01* 5.2(1.1-26.1) 0.04*
Alcohol use
 No alcohol 23(27.4) 61(72.6) 1.0   1.0  
 Takes alcohol 13(37.1) 22(62.9) 1.6(0.7-3.6) 0.24** 9.1(1.4-55.7) 0.02*
Windows per room
 0 – 1 15(27.8) 39(72.2) 1.0   1.0  
 2 or more 23(33.8) 45(66.2) 0.8 (0.3 – 1.6) 0.47 0.4(0.1-1.8) 0.22
Persons per room
 1-2 9(23.9) 30(76.9) 1.0   1.0  
 More than 2 33(37.9) 54(62.1) 2.0(0.8-4.9) 0.10** 0.3(0.1-1.80 0.19
Use firewood
 No firewood 6(31.6) 13(68.4) 1.0   1.0  
 Use firewood 30(30.3) 69(69.7) 0.9(0.3-2.7) 0.91 1.2(0.4-3.2) 0.21
  1. Note: * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.25