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Table 3 - Path analysis for the prediction of positive mental health and mental health problems by lifestyle choices in German students

From: Lifestyle choices and mental health: a longitudinal survey with German and Chinese students

Outcome Positive mental health (PMH) Mental health problems (MHP)
Fixed effects β SE (β) t p d β SE (β) t p d
Cross-sectional analysis
 Gender (male/female) −.07 0.02 −3.85 < .001 0.15 .11 0.02 6.05 < .001 0.23
 Age −.02 0.02 −1.27 .204 0.05 −.03 0.02 −1.52 .128 0.06
 Body mass index −.04 0.02 −2.13 .033 0.08 .05 0.02 2.39 .017 0.09
 Physical activity .13 0.02 7.64 < .001 0.29 −.07 0.02 −3.56 < .001 0.14
 Mental activity .08 0.02 4.43 < .001 0.17 −.09 0.02 −5.24 < .001 0.20
 Alcohol frequency .04 0.02 2.44 .015 0.09 −.02 0.02 −1.16 .245 0.04
 Smoking (no/yes) −.05 0.02 −2.65 .008 0.10 .08 0.02 4.24 < .001 0.16
 Vegetarian diet (no/yes) −.05 0.02 −2.88 .004 0.11 .07 0.02 3.64 < .001 0.14
 Social rhythm irregularity −.26 0.02 −15.33 < .001 0.59 .28 0.02 15.50 < .001 0.60
Longitudinal analysis
 Baseline positive mental health (PMH) .55 0.03 16.61 < .001 0.64 −.09 0.04 −2.19 .028 0.08
 Baseline mental health problems (MHP) −.12 0.04 −3.22 .001 0.12 .52 0.04 14.02 < .001 0.54
 Gender (male/female) −.05 0.03 −1.51 .130 0.06 .08 0.03 2.45 .014 0.09
 Age −.02 0.03 −0.56 .573 0.02 .00 0.03 −0.05 .963 0.00
 Body mass index −.03 0.03 −1.11 .265 0.04 .03 0.03 0.77 .442 0.03
 Physical activity .03 0.03 0.82 .414 0.03 .03 0.03 0.76 .447 0.03
 Mental activity −.03 0.03 −1.15 .251 0.04 .00 0.03 −0.04 .970 0.00
 Alcohol frequency −.02 0.03 −0.51 .610 0.02 −.02 0.03 −0.70 .481 0.03
 Smoking (no/yes) .00 0.03 0.11 .910 0.00 .03 0.03 1.01 .311 0.04
 Vegetarian diet (no/yes) .05 0.03 1.62 .105 0.06 −.05 0.03 −1.60 .111 0.06
 Social rhythm irregularity −.09 0.03 −2.72 .007 0.10 .08 0.04 2.19 .028 0.08