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Table 1 A partial summary of PQAs reported in the literature from 2011 to 2017

From: Are we doing enough to prevent poor-quality antimalarial medicines in the developing world?

Drug(s) Issue Number of PQM failed/tested (%) Country Study
Artemisinin-based drugs, halofantrine Incorrect amount of API, API absent entirely, quinine substituted for artesunate 35/59 (59%) Burkina Faso, Chad, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal Newton et al. 2011 [34]
Artesunate No artesunate present 1 (case report) Equatorial Guinea Chaccour et al. 2012 [13]
Artemisinin-based drugs, chloroquine, primaquine Incorrect amount of API 18/77 (23%) Guyana Evans et al. 2012 [35]
Incorrect packaging 30/77 (38%)
Artesunate and amodiaquine Incorrect amount of API 13/16 (81%) Ghana Affum et al. 2013 [36]
Artemisinin-based drugs Incorrect amount of API 13/14 (92%) Ghana El-Duah et al. 2012 [37]
Artemisinin-based drugs, chloroquine, quinine, primaquine, amodiaquine Incorrect amount of API 36/301 (11%) Papua New Guinea Hetzel et al. 2014 [38]
Artemisinin-based drugs Incorrect amount of API 94/124 (by HPLC) (75%) 112/125 (by SQ-TLC) (89%) Ghana and Togo Osei-Safo et al. 2014 [39]
Artemisinin-based drugs Incorrect amount of API 69/1737 (4%) Tanzania ACT Consortium Drug Quality Project Team 2015 [40]
Artemisinin-based drugs Incorrect amount of API 206/3024 (6%) Nigeria Kaur et al. 2015 [41]
Falsified (0% API) 35/3024 (1%)
Degradation products of API present 38/3024 (1%)
Artemisinin-based drugs, chloroquine, quinine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine Incorrect amount of API, incorrect labelling 8/28 (28%) Cambodia Yong et al. 2015 [42]
Incorrect amount of API 1/7 (14%) Indonesia
Incorrect amount of API, counterfeit packaging 15/30 (50%) Laos
Incorrect amount of API 1/10 (10%) Myanmar
Incorrect amount of API 4/8 (50%) Thailand
Incorrect amount of API 1/12 (8%) Vietnam
Artemisinin-based drugs Incorrect amount of API 91/291 (31%) Cambodia Yeung et al. 2015 [43]
Expired at time of purchase 21/212 (9%)
Range of antimalarial drugs Incorrect amount of API 9/146 (6%) Laos Tabernero et al. 2015 [44]
Range of antimalarial drugs Incorrect amount of API 12/37 (32%) Afghanistan Lalani et al. 2015 [45]
Artemisinin-based drugs Expired at time of purchase 23/256 (8%) Ghana Tivura et al. 2016 [46]
Incorrect amount of API 90/254 (35%)
Quinine sulfate Incorrect amount of API 7/56a (12%) Malawi Khuluza et al. 2017 [47]
Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine (multiple different samples) Both stated APIs absent but other APIs present; falsified identity; incorrect amount of API
Artemisinin-based drugs Incorrect amount of API 11/30 (36%) Nigeria Izevbekhai et al. 2017 [48]
  1. API active pharmaceutical ingredient, HPLC high-performance liquid chromatography, SQ-TLC semi-quantitative thin-layer chromatography; a - pharmaceuticals tested included antibiotics
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