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Table 1 Cognitive function data across the exercise and resting trials. Data are mean ± S.E.M.

From: High intensity intermittent games-based activity and adolescents’ cognition: moderating effect of physical fitness

Test Level Variable Participant Group Resting trial Exercise trial
Pre-exercise Immediately post-exercise 45 min post-exercise Pre-exercise Immediately post-exercise 45 min post-exercise
Stroop test Simple Response time [ms] Overall 886 ± 28 849 ± 34 852 ± 30 885 ± 22 823 ± 25 933 ± 42
Low Fitness Group 901 ± 37 842 ± 38 861 ± 49 868 ± 33 825 ± 32 980 ± 60
High Fitness Group 888 ± 51 878 ± 67 872 ± 43 906 ± 27 824 ± 41 852 ± 41
Accuracy [%] Overall 99.1 ± 0.4 97.7 ± 0.6 96.2 ± 1.1 97.6 ± 0.9 97.0 ± 1.2 97.9 ± 0.8
Low Fitness Group 99.2 ± 0.6 98.3 ± 0.8 96.6 ± 2.1 98.7 ± 0.7 97.9 ± 1.0 98.7 ± 0.7
High Fitness Group 98.7 ± 0.7 97.5 ± 1.1 95.8 ± 1.2 98.3 ± 0.8 98.3 ± 1.0 98.3 ± 0.8
Complex Response time [ms] Overall 1133 ± 37 1118 ± 31 1140 ± 31 1187 ± 38 1114 ± 29 1124 ± 35
Low Fitness Group 1164 ± 49 1190 ± 46 1179 ± 45 1131 ± 45 1102 ± 38 1163 ± 57
High Fitness Group 1130 ± 63 1064 ± 44 1126 ± 46 1255 ± 69 1147 ± 50 1125 ± 49
Accuracy [%] Overall 96.8 ± 0.7 94.6 ± 0.8 92.8 ± 1.3 96.6 ± 1.0 94.2 ± 1.2 93.6 ± 1.3
Low Fitness Group 96.5 ± 1.1 95.0 ± 1.1 93.8 ± 1.6 97.6 ± 0.9 95.3 ± 1.2 94.1 ± 1.4
High Fitness Group 96.3 ± 1.1 94.4 ± 1.3 92.6 ± 1.9 96.8 ± 1.2 94.1 ± 1.8 94.1 ± 2.0
Sternberg paradigm One item Response time [ms] Overall 553 ± 15 533 ± 15 519 ± 21 548 ± 15 512 ± 16 523 ± 20
Low Fitness Group 578 ± 26 562 ± 25 558 ± 38 563 ± 23 526 ± 27 565 ± 35
High Fitness Group 538 ± 20 522 ± 17 484 ± 21 545 ± 24 505 ± 20 495 ± 21
Accuracy [%] Overall 98.6 ± 0.6 97.6 ± 0.6 96.6 ± 1.0 97.9 ± 0.7 95.7 ± 1.4 97.6 ± 0.8
Low Fitness Group 99.7 ± 0.3 98.6 ± 0.8 98.6 ± 0.6 98.3 ± 0.7 94.8 ± 2.8 99.0 ± 0.6
High Fitness Group 97.1 ± 1.2 97.1 ± 0.9 94.9 ± 1.9 98.2 ± 0.9 96.3 ± 1.1 97.1 ± 1.6
Three item Response time [ms] Overall 712 ± 20 690 ± 23 681 ± 20 710 ± 22 692 ± 21 687 ± 22
Low Fitness Group 736 ± 29 689 ± 30 686 ± 30 707 ± 36 702 ± 31 697 ± 32
High Fitness Group 703 ± 31 707 ± 40 688 ± 29 731 ± 31 705 ± 28 685 ± 34
Accuracy [%] Overall 95.8 ± 0.6 96.7 ± 0.7 95.0 ± 0.8 97.3 ± 0.5 94.6 ± 1.0 95.0 ± 1.0
Low Fitness Group 96.7 ± 0.7 97.4 ± 0.7 94.1 ± 1.3 97.4 ± 0.5 95.8 ± 0.8 94.8 ± 1.4
High Fitness Group 94.3 ± 1.1 95.8 ± 1.5 95.8 ± 1.3 96.9 ± 1.0 94.5 ± 1.8 95.6 ± 1.2
Five item Response time [ms] Overall 861 ± 23 846 ± 28 839 ± 25 878 ± 27 818 ± 25 832 ± 26
Low Fitness Group 856 ± 30 863 ± 37 830 ± 35 851 ± 33 801 ± 33 820 ± 29
High Fitness Group 891 ± 40 840 ± 51 873 ± 42 923 ± 45 854 ± 42 868 ± 45
Accuracy [%] Overall 94.2 ± 0.9 92.4 ± 1.5 92.7 ± 1.0 93.7 ± 1.2 92.1 ± 1.2 90.1 ± 1.6
Low Fitness Group 93.9 ± 1.1 92.2 ± 1.8 93.9 ± 1.3 94.6 ± 1.1 90.3 ± 2.1 90.1 ± 2.5
High Fitness Group 93.6 ± 1.6 92.3 ± 2.7 91.5 ± 1.9 92.1 ± 2.3 93.8 ± 1.2 90.3 ± 2.2
Trail making test Number Time taken [ms] Overall 4827 ± 143 5093 ± 215 5113 ± 202 4777 ± 154 4878 ± 178 5056 ± 195
Low Fitness Group 4483 ± 215 4991 ± 343 4806 ± 315 4470 ± 220 4761 ± 287 5242 ± 313
High Fitness Group 5224 ± 215 5311 ± 343 5536 ± 315 5285 ± 220 5152 ± 287 5075 ± 313
Number and letter Time taken [ms] Overall 6539 ± 308 6333 ± 347 5941 ± 236 6847 ± 272 6498 ± 323 6103 ± 274
Low Fitness Group 5743 ± 449 5666 ± 511 5663 ± 360 6339 ± 409 5777 ± 480 5940 ± 440
High Fitness Group 7487 ± 449 7356 ± 511 6477 ± 360 7624 ± 408 7389 ± 480 6495 ± 440
d2 test Concentration Performance Overall 384 ± 12 425 ± 11 437 ± 13 390 ± 13 424 ± 12 431 ± 12
Low Fitness Group 371 ± 19 409 ± 16 418 ± 19 362 ± 19 399 ± 18 410 ± 17
High Fitness Group 395 ± 19 438 ± 16 456 ± 19 414 ± 19 445 ± 18 452 ± 17
Processed Targets Overall 396 ± 13 440 ± 12 456 ± 14 404 ± 13 438 ± 13 447 ± 13
Low Fitness Group 384 ± 20 422 ± 18 435 ± 20 377 ± 19 409 ± 19 424 ± 19
High Fitness Group 404 ± 20 453 ± 18 478 ± 20 428 ± 19 463 ± 19 472 ± 19
Error Percentage Overall 4.8 ± 1.1 4.8 ± 1.0 5.1 ± 0.9 7.8 ± 1.7 6.1 ± 1.1 6.3 ± 1.1
Low Fitness Group 7.8 ± 1.5 7.2 ± 1.5 7.1 ± 1.4 12.5 ± 2.4 8.6 ± 1.5 9.0 ± 1.6
High Fitness Group 1.9 ± 1.5 2.4 ± 1.5 3.1 ± 1.4 3.4 ± 2.4 3.9 ± 1.5 3.9 ± 1.6