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Table 5 Critical appraisal of selected studies. Modified scale from Dufault and Klar [29]

From: Mortality and morbidity in populations in the vicinity of coal mining: a systematic review

Author (year) Study design and focus Statistical methodology Quality of reporting Score
Sample size Level of inference Pre-specification of ecological units Validity of statistical inferences Use of covariates Spatial effects Proper adjustment for covariates Statement of study design Justification of study design Discussion of cross-level bias and limitations Points
Liao et al. (2016) 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 7
Woolley et al. (2015) 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 5
Talbott et al. (2015) 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 9
Mueller et al. (2015) 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 10
Lamm et al. (2015) 2 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
Buchanich et al. (2014) 1 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 1 7
Brink et al. (2014) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 7
Liu et al. (2013) 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 1 0 8
Fernandez-Navarro et al. (2012) 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 9
Ahern and Hendryx (2012) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 8
Borak et al. (2012) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 6
Ahern et al. (2011) 2 1 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 11
Esch and Hendryx (2011) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 1 9
Christian et al. (2011) 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 0 1 0 8
Hendryx (2011) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 7
Ahern, MacKay and Hamilton (2011) 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 7
Liao et al. (2010) 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 10
Hendryx et al. (2010a) 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 1 9
Hendryx, Fedorko and Halverson (2010) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 7
Hitt and Hendryx (2010) 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 5
Hendryx (2009) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 7
Hendryx and Ahern (2009) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 6
Hendryx (2008) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 7
Hendryx et al. (2008) 2 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 6
Hendryx et al. (2007) 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 1 0 1 9
Gu et al. (2007) 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 6
Howel et al. (2001) 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 7
Pless-Mulloli et al. (2000) 2 1 0 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 7