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Table 3 ICD-10-CM diagnosis categories, block of categories and chapters identified in studies of mortality and mortality/morbidity

From: Mortality and morbidity in populations in the vicinity of coal mining: a systematic review

ICD

Increased risk y/n / NSa / Oa [citation]

Total exposed

Values

Chapter: Neoplasms

C00-C97 (All malignant neoplasms)

y [30, 32, 3840]

Population in 214 USA counties

RR ranging 1.01-1.06 p < 0.05. Increased regression coefficients for residence and coal production c

C15 (Cancer of oesophagus)

y [35]

Population in 82 USA counties

r = 0.766(SE = 0.353) p < 0.05 SMR in coal mining counties

C16 (Cancer of stomach)

y [35]

Population in 82 USA counties

r = 0.935(SE = 0.482) p < 0.05 SMR in coal mining counties

C18, C19, C20, C21 (Cancer of: colon, recto-sigmoid, rectum, anus)

y [30, 33, 35]

Population in 157 USA counties and 48 Spanish towns

RR = 1.27(1.12-1.44) MR men-women and RR = 1.31(1.13-1.52) MR men in towns <5Km to coal mining. Increased regression coefficients for residence, coal production and type of coal mining county c

C22 (Cancer of liver and intrahepatic bile ducts)

y [33, 35]

Population in 82 USA counties and 48 Spanish towns

r = 0.788(SE = 0.395) p < 0.05 SMR in coal mining counties. RR = 1.69(1.09-2.63) MR men in towns <5Km to coal mining

C32 (Cancer of larynx)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.36/0.42 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties

C33 (Cancer of trachea)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.36/0.42 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties

C34 (Cancer of bronchus and lung)

y [30, 33, 35, 40, 43]

Population in 82 USA counties and 48 Spanish towns

RR = 1.22(1.01-1.49) MR men-women, RR = 1.29(1.05-1.59) MR men in towns <5Km to coal mining. Increased regression coefficients for residence, coal production, type of mining and type of coal mining county c

C30-C39 (Cancer of respiratory and intrathoracic organs)

y [38] / O [31]

Population in 29 USA counties

Pearson coefficient = 0.47 p < 0.01 SMR in counties with 1000Tons mined /Km2. O: increased rates in a graphical analysis and comparative t-test

C43 (Melanoma)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C53 (Cervical cancer)

y [35]

Population in 82 USA counties

r = 0.699(SE = .325) p < 0.05 SMR in coal mining counties

C61 (Prostate cancer)

n [30]

Population in 75 USA counties

r = −0.32 p ≤ 0.005 SMR by coal production and type of coal mining county

C67 (Cancer of bladder)

y [35]

Population in 82 USA counties

r = 1.33(SE = .438) p < 0.01 SMR in coal mining counties

C70 (Cancer of meninges)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C71 (Brain cancer)

y [33, 40]

Population in 29 USA counties and 48 Spanish towns

RR = 1.75(1.19-2.57) MR men in towns <5Km to coal mining. Increased regression coefficients for residence and type of mining c

C72 (Cancer of spinal cord, cranial nerves and other parts of central nervous system)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C73 (Thyroid cancer)

y [33]

Population in 48 Spanish towns

RR = 2.05(1.01-4.13) MR men, RR = 1.70(1.02-2.84) MR women, in towns <5Km to coal mining

C81 (Hodgkin lymphoma)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C82, C83, C84, C85 (Follicular/non-follicular, mature T/NK-cell, and other specified/unspecified non-Hodgkin lymphomas

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C88 (Malignant immuno-proliferative diseases and other B-cell lymphomas)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C90 (Multiple myeloma and plasmacytoma)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C91, C92, C93, C94, C95 (Lymphoid, myeloid, monocytic, other specified leukemia, unspecified leukemia)

y [35, 40]

Population in 82 USA counties

r = 1.102(SE = .554) p < 0.05 SMR in coal mining counties. r/adjustedR2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

C96 (Unspecified cancer of lymphoid, hematopoietic and related tissue)

y [40]

Population in 29 USA counties

r/adjusted R2 = 0.441/0.16 p < 0.002 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 0.324/0.1 p < 0.02 SMR by coal production

Chapter: Diseases of the circulatory system

I00-I78 (All diseases of the circulatory system, except unclassified and unspecific)

y [39] / NS [39]

Population in 139 USA counties

r = 14.32(6.61) p < 0.03 SMR in high production coal mining counties. NS. 5.17 (5.97) p < 0.39 SMR in low production coal mining counties

I10 (Essential Hypertension)

y [36, 42] / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.96-1.28 in coal mining counties c. r = 16.9(7.5) p < 0.03 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 11.4(5.5) p < 0.05 SMR by coal production

I11 (Hypertensive heart disease)

y [36, 42] / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.96-1.28 in coal mining counties c. r = 16.9(7.5) p < 0.03 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 11.4(5.5) p < 0.05 SMR by coal production

I12 (Hypertensive chronic kidney disease)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.96-1.28 in coal mining counties c.

I13 (Hypertensive heart and chronic kidney disease)

y [36]

Population in 90 USA counties

r = 16.9(7.5) p < 0.03 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 11.4(5.5) p < 0.05 SMR by coal production

I21 (ST elevation and non-ST myocardial infarction)

y [36, 42] / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.96-1.28 in coal mining counties c. r = 16.9(7.5) p < 0.03 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 11.4(5.5) p < 0.05 SMR by coal production

I24 (Other acute ischemic heart diseases)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.96-1.2) in coal mining counties c

I25 (Chronic ischemic heart disease)

y [36, 42] /n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.96-1.2) in coal mining counties c. r = 16.9(7.5) p < 0.03 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 11.4(5.5) p < 0.05 SMR by coal production

I31, I33, (Endocarditis, other diseases of pericardium)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.89-1.10 in coal mining counties c

I40 (Acute myocarditis)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.89-1.10 in coal mining counties c

I50 (Heart failure)

y [36, 42] /n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.89-1.10 in coal mining counties c. r = 16.9(7.5) p < 0.03 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 11.4(5.5) p < 0.05 SMR by coal production

I70 (Atherosclerosis)

y [36]

Population in 90 USA counties

r = 16.9(7.5) p < 0.03 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 11.4(5.5) p < 0.05 SMR by coal production

Chapter: Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J99)

y [39] / O [31]

Population in 139 USA counties

r = 6.29(SE = 1.79) p < 0.001 SMR in coal mining counties, r = 9.81(SE = 2.32) p < 0.0001 SMR by type of coal mining county. O: increased rates in a graphical analysis and comparative t-test

J12, J13, J14, J15, J16, J17, J18 (Viral pneumonia, and pneumonia due to: streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, other bacteria, non-classified organism, unspecified organism)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.89-1.13 in coal mining counties c

J20, J21 (Acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.89-1.13 in coal mining counties c

J22 (Unspecified acute lower respiratory infection)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 0.89-1.13 in coal mining counties c

J40, J41, J42 (Mucopurulent, simple, and not specified Bronchitis)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR = 1.07(1.04-1.10) males, RR = 1.11(1.07-1.15) females; in coal mining counties

J43, J44 (Emphysema, other chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR = 0.94(0.90-0.98) females in coal mining counties

J45 (Asthma)

y / n [42] b

Population in 129 USA counties

RR = 1.04(1.02-1.06) males in coal mining counties

Chapter: Diseases of the genitourinary system

N03, N04, N05 (Chronic/unspecified nephritic syndrome, nephrotic syndrome)

y [42]

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 1.08-1.19 in coal mining counties c

N17, N18, N19 (Acute and unspecific kidney failure, chronic kidney disease)

y [42]

Population in 129 USA counties

RR ranging 1.08-1.19 in coal mining counties c

Chapter: External causes of morbidity (V00-V99)

y / n [32] b / O [31]

Population in 31 USA counties

RR ranging 0.91-1.12 in coal mining counties c. O: increased rates in a graphical analysis and comparative t-test

ICD categories in more than one ICD chapter

A00-Y89 (All combined internal and external causes)

y [32, 39, 41] / n [32] b / NS [34] / O [31]

Population in 139 USA counties

RR ranging 0.97-1.03 in coal mining counties c. Increased regression coefficients for residence and type of mining c. NS: r = 4.68(8.96) p < 0.6003 SMR in coal mining counties d. O: increased rates in a graphical analysis and comparative t-test

A00-R99 (All combined internal causes)

y [37, 44]

Population in 139 USA counties

Adjusted r ranging 21.5-63.0 SMR by residence and type of mining c

ICD categories in studies of mortality and morbidity

Chapter: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

Q00, Q01, Q05, Q04.2 (Anencephaly, encephalocele, spina bifida, holoprosencephaly)

y [46] / O [47] / O-NS [48]

204 geographical grid points in Heshun province (China). 46 villages in Zhongyang and Jiaokou Counties (China)

RR = 1.338(1.004-1.783) p < 0.05 cases to mothers resident in coal mining areas. O: increased rate cases in populations < 8 km to coal transport roads (p < 0.007), not measure provided. O-NS: higher mortality rate (281.2/10000) in villages closer to coal mining plants/control population: chi-square test (p < 0.364)

  1. Increased risk y/n: one or more risk measure increased/non-increased in exposed versus non-exposed populations. r regression coefficient, SE standard error, MR mortality rate, RR relative risk, SMR standardised mortality rate
  2. a NS/O: Not significant/Other measure
  3. b Disparities found in different exposed sub-groups
  4. c All risk measures provided in additional material [see Additional file 4].
  5. d These results were disputed, and the article subjected to erratum