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Table 2 Risk factors for AIDS incidence at presentation among patients newly diagnosed with HIV infection

From: AIDS incidence trends at presentation and during follow-up among HIV-at-risk populations: a 15-year nationwide cohort study in Taiwan

  Number of patients, n Number of AIDS, n % Univariable analysis, crude OR (95% CI) Multivariable analysis, adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age group
  ≤ 30 11,305 1445 12.8 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 31–40 6965 1594 22.9 2.03 (1.87–2.19)*** 2.76 (2.53–3.01)***
 41–50 2962 886 29.9 2.91 (2.65–3.21)*** 4.19 (3.74–4.69)***
  ≥ 51 1433 646 45.1 5.60 (4.98–6.30)*** 4.64 (4.00–5.37)***
Sex
 Female 1580 257 16.3 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Male 21,085 4314 20.5 1.32 (1.15–1.52)*** 1.39 (1.17–1.65)***
HIV-transmission route
 PWID 6646 154 2.3 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Bisexual contact 1898 572 30.1 18.19 (15.08–21.93)*** 20.28 (16.59–24.79)***
 Heterosexual contact 4152 1592 38.3 26.22 (22.08–31.12)*** 24.48 (20.39–29.39)***
 Homosexual contact 9779 2147 22.0 11.86 (10.04–14.01)*** 16.02 (13.35–19.22)***
 Othera 190 106 55.8 53.19 (38.33–73.84)*** 38.23 (26.94–54.24)***
Urbanization
 Rural 7384 1288 17.4 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Urban 15,281 3283 21.5 1.30 (1.21–1.39)*** 0.96 (0.88–1.05)
Income level, n (%)
 Low 13,785 2328 16.9 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Intermediate 6421 1546 24.1 1.56 (1.45–1.68)*** 0.99 (0.91–1.07)
 High 2459 697 28.3 1.95 (1.76–2.15)*** 0.85 (0.76–0.94)**
Cohort period
 Period 1 1373 395 28.8 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Period 2 2262 451 19.9 0.62 (0.53–0.72)*** 0.65 (0.55–0.77)***
 Period 3 7774 819 10.5 0.29 (0.25–0.34)*** 0.87 (0.75–1.01)
 Period 4 5288 1274 24.1 0.79 (0.69–0.90)*** 1.32 (1.15–1.53)***
 Period 5 5968 1632 27.4 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 1.33 (1.15–1.53)***
HIV-diagnosis region
 Taipei area 7899 1656 21.0 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Northern Taiwan 3212 608 18.9 0.88 (0.80–0.98)* 1.17 (1.05–1.32)**
 Central Taiwan 4081 839 20.6 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 1.25 (1.13–1.39)***
 Southern Taiwan 2687 525 19.5 0.92 (0.82–1.02) 1.26 (1.11–1.42)***
 Kaoping area 4311 817 19.0 0.88 (0.80–0.97)** 1.18 (1.06–1.32)**
 Eastern Taiwan 475 126 26.5 1.36 (1.10–1.69)** 1.27 (1.00–1.62)**
DM
 No 22,097 4362 19.7 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Yes 568 202 35.6 2.26 (1.90–2.69)*** 1.04 (0.84–1.29)
CKD
 No 22,358 4456 19.9 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Yes 307 108 35.2 2.18 (1.72–2.76)*** 1.28 (0.96–1.71)
CHF
 No 22,573 4522 20.0 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Yes 92 42 45.7 3.50 (2.32–5.27)*** 1.41 (0.85–2.36)
COPD
 No 22,158 4522 19.6 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Yes 507 220 43.4 3.14 (2.62–3.75)*** 1.63 (1.32–2.01)***
Cancer
 No 21,019 4061 19.3 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Yes 1646 503 30.6 1.85 (1.65–2.06)*** 1.15 (1.02–1.30)*
CVD
 No 22,408 4459 19.9 1.0 (Reference) 1.0 (Reference)
 Yes 257 105 40.9 2.82 (2.20–3.62)*** 1.33 (0.97–1.82)
  1. Note. *P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.001
  2. Abbreviation: AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CHF chronic heart failure; CI confidence intervals; CKD chronic kidney disease; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CVD cardiovascular disease; DM diabetes mellitus; OR odd ratios; PWID people who injected drugs
  3. aIncludes those exposed to blood products, mother-to-child transmission, and unknown exposures