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Table 8 Association of cigarette smoking with waterpipe and e-cigarette use

From: Cigarette, waterpipe and e-cigarette use among an international sample of medical students. Cross-sectional multicenter study in Germany and Hungary

  No waterpipe Waterpipe Chi2-test No e-cigarette E-cigarette Chi2-test
Cigarette non-smoker    p < 0.001    p < 0.001
N 2108 77   2146 8  
% of total sample % 78.2 2.9   80.6 0.3  
of non-smoker 96.5 3.5   99.6 0.4  
Cigarette smoker
N 460 52   491 16  
% of total sample % 17.1 1.9   18.5 0.6  
of smoker 89.8 10.2   96.8 3.2